Counties to Search in area:
- Virginia – Gloucester County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Goochland County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Hanover County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Henrico County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Albemarle County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Buckingham County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Amelia County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Powhatan County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Chesterfield County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Powhatan County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Louisa County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – New Kent County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Charles City County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – York County – 1600s to early 1800s
- Virginia – James City County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Westmoreland County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Stafford County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Surry County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Fairfax County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Prince William County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Amherst County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Appomattox County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Campbell County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Caroline County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Charlotte County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Nansemond County – 1700s to early 1800s
- Virginia – Shenandoah County – 1700s to early 1800s
(Below are different Going, Goyen, Gowen related sources for those people were in the Virginia, North Carolina, or South Carolina areas in the early 1700’s to early 1800’s)
James Cittie County, Virginia
1623 Feb 16 – Thomas Guine 2 (age 28? – decd b. 1595)
A List of the Names of the Dead in Virginia Since Last April:
Va. – Plantation of James Cittie
-1626 Jan 12 – Willm Gaines 1- (age 42)
– Tennants – to Capt Tucker
Va. – James Citty
-1640 June 30 – Philip Gayne 1.1 (age 27 b. 1613) ( son of William 1? ) wife Catherine Wilkins
Upon the petition of Edward Prince to this court that whereas Philip Gayne hath divers times unlawfully without the privity and consent of him the said Prince inveigled on Catherine Wilkins a maid servant belonging to him and gotten her with child and since married her: the court doth thereupon order that the said servant shall serve the said Edward Prince her full time of service due unto him by covenant and that he the said Philip Gayne shall make satisfaction to the said Edward Prince for such further damages as he shall hereafter make appear that he hath sustained thereby.
James City, Va
-1652 Aug 14 – Thomas Gayne 11 NICHO. GEORGE, THOMAS TABERER & HUMPHRY CLARKE, Jane Bayley, Willm. Thomas, John Mackan, Thomas Walker, Mary Burdyken (?), George Mountford, Robert Giles, Hannah his wife, Hannah his daughter, Thomas Holmes, Mary Johns, , John Corvent, SarahDugort, John Sheeres, Richard Dauson, Thomas Gayne, John Dalton, Joshua Taberer.
NICHO. GEORGE, THOMAS TABERER & HUMPHRY CLARKE, 900 acs., Aug. 14, 1652, p. 205. Beg. at the mouth on N. side of a branch where Francis England’s land endeth &c. cross the branch &c. to the great swamp, being the first branch of the black water, etc. Trans. of 18 pers: (see above). p. 278. Va. Land Trans – Francis England’s land. Francis England’s land, Va.
1665 Aug 8 – Mr. Guines
119. Thomas Dennett. Aug 8, 1665. 700 acres. Beg’g at Mr. Guine’s Corner by the Dyascun Swamp.
James City Co, Va.
1668 Feb 8 – Mihill Gowree –
30 to 40 acrs deed to Mihill Gowree from Capt Barnhouse. Formerly belonging to John Turner.
James City County, Va
1674 July 16 – Philip Gowen – Jon Lucas, Mrs Amye Boazlye, deceased
Court: freedom suit Gowen v Jon Lucas, 16 July 1674, James City, Virginia, USA. 1 At General Court Phillip Gowen “negro” suing John Lucas for his freedom – freedom granted and Lucas to pay Gowen 3 barrels of corn according to the will of Mrs Amye Boazlye, deceased. James City, Va
1674 July 16 – Philip Gowen, a black servant, files a lawsuit for his freedom. Court: freedom suit Gowen v Jon Lucas, 16 July 1674, James City, Virginia, USA. 1 At General Court Phillip Gowen “negro” suing John Lucas for his freedom – freedom granted and Lucas to pay Gowen 3 barrels of corn according to the will of Mrs Amye Boazlye, deceased. The Petition of Philip Gowen for his Freedom.
[Philip Gowen sued for his freedom from his master, John Lucas, in June 1675. Perhaps he was a second son born to Mihill Gowen and Amy Barnhouse’s enslaved woman Prosta.] Phillip Gowen negro Suing Mr Jno Lucas to this Court for his freedome It is Orderd that the said Phill Gowen be free from ye Said Mr Lucas his Service and that the Indenture Acknowledg’d in Warwick County County [sic] be Invallid and that ye Said Mr Lucas pay unto ye Gowen three Barrels of Corne att the Cropp According to ye Will of Mrs Amye Boazlye decd wth Costs…
Source: McIlwaine, ed., Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia, p. 441. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/practise.html This document provides a unique look at the status of African laborers in Virginia by clearly illustrating that fixed terms of indentured servitude existed, but also that they could be violated. In 1675 Phillip Gowen, an African American indentured servant, petitioned the governor of Virginia for release from servitude. In his petition, Gowen gave a detailed history of his life in bondage and the injustice he was currently experiencing. In 1664, Amy Beazley, Gowen’s original owner, provided in her will that after serving her nephew, Humphrey Stafford, for eight years, Gowen was to be set free and given the usual “freedom dues” for an indenture, corn and a set of clothes.
Gowen indicated that Stafford sold him and his remaining indentured time to Charles Lucas. Gowen claimed that Lucas, instead of freeing him at the end of his eighth year of servitude, forced him to serve three additional years. Even worse, Gowen claimed that Lucas threatened him and forced him to sign an indenture for another twenty years.
Indentured servants, both black and white, were subject to exploitation by their masters. Many could not read and write, which made their situations even more challenging. This document was probably written by an attorney on behalf of Phillip Gowen because it follows the traditional form of petitions of the time, with which, as a servant, Gowen himself probably would not have been familiar. Despite their low status, servants did have the right to petition the courts for help, as this document shows. Records indicate that the General Court of Virginia freed Gowen on June 16, 1675, and ordered Lucas to pay him three barrels of corn and court costs. The court also invalidated the twenty-year indenture Gowen claimed that Lucas had forced him to sign that was on file with the Warwick County Court.
Phillip Gowen’s petition offers a window to explore the development of chattel slavery in colonial America. While Africans were brought to North America as captives, most were treated like indentured servants and were freed after their terms of service. Gradually, during the 17th and 18th century, Virginia began to pass laws that made slavery—servitude for life—a reality for most people of African descent. Below is a brief timeline of such legislation and legal cases which show a decrease in freedom for African Americans:
• 1639—African Americans were excluded from being required to have firearms.
• 1640—John Punch, an African American indentured servant, was sentenced to a life of servitude after being caught running away from his master. The two white men who were with him only received one additional year on their indentures.
• 1643—Owners were taxed on African American women, but not white women laborers.
• 1662—The law declared that a person’s status depends on the status of the mother. This meant that children born to enslaved women would be slaves for life, under the law.
• 1667—The law declared that being a baptized a Christian did not change a person’s status as a servant or slave.
• 1669—A new law was established that it was not a punishable crime for a master to kill a slave in the process of “correcting” that slave.
• 1705—The law provided that “Negro, Mulatto, and Indians slaves” were considered to be property, or real estate, under the law. This same statute also declared that all Africans were considered to be slaves.
PHILLIP GOWEN PETITION, JUNE 16, 1675
The practice of indentured servitude in England grew out of older feudal systems and apprenticeship practices that had their roots in the Middle Ages. The Virginia Company of London contracted with the first Virginia settlers for their labor, and, when the Company started trading land for service and tobacco became the first profitable cash crop, Virginia’s style of indentured servitude coalesced. By the 1620s, a standard system had been put into place whereby servants negotiated the terms of their indentures with a merchant, ship’s captain, or other agent before sailing to Virginia. Their indentures were then sold to planters when the servants arrived in the colony.
The beginning of lifelong servitude or slavery in Virginia is very hard to trace. There is evidence that Africans may have already been in the colony before the first documented appearance of them in John Rolfe’s 1619 letter, which mentions, “20. and odd Negroes” arriving in Jamestown. Whether or not a person of African descent was held in slavery was a matter of circumstances unclear to modern historians. The person’s status as a Christian or a non-Christian, and whether or not the person had previously been enslaved definitely affected how he or she was treated in the colony. The most important thing to note is that some African Virginians were not held as slaves at the beginning of the colony’s history. Although many of the laws restricting African Virginians were passed in the 1660s, slavery did not become codified in Virginia law until 1705.
Phillip Gowen was the son of Mihill Gowen, a free African Virginian, who had once worked for Amye Beazlye, the woman who had freed Phillip in her will. This petition to Governor William Berkeley and the Council of State was probably written for Gowen by a person familiar with the petitioning process; the document makes use of standard structure and language of petitions from that era. Gowen sought relief from his new master, whom he declared was attempting to prolong his servitude. After reviewing the petition, the governor and council ordered that Gowen be freed. This document gives an example of the precarious situation of African Americans in the early colony before slavery was completely institutionalized.
TRANSCRIPTION of Phillip Gowen’s Petition: Page 1 of 1
To the Rt: Honble: Sr: William Berkeley knt: Governr: & Capt. Genll: Of Virga: with the Honbl: Councill of State:
The peticon of Phillip Gowen a Negro, In all humility Sheweth: That yor. petr. being a servt: to Mrs. Amye Beazlye late of James Citty County Widdow decd. the said Mrs. Beazlye made her last will & testament in writtinge under her hand & seale, bearing date the 9th. day of Aprill An Dom. 1664: and amongst other things, did order, will, & appoint, that yor. petr. by the then name of Negro Boy Phillip, should serve her Cousin Mr: Humphrey Stafford, the terme of Eight yeares then next ensueing, and then should Inioy his freedom,e & be paid three barrells of Corne & a suit of Clothes, As by the said will appeares, Soone after the makinge of which will, the said Mrs. Beazlye departed this life, and yor petr. did continue & abide with the said Mr. Stafford (with whome he was orderd by the said will to live) some years, and then the said Mr. Stafford sold the remainder of yor. petrr. time, to one Mr. Charles Lucas, with whome yor petr alsoe continued, doeing true & faithfull Service, but the said Mr: Lucas coveting yr petrs.
Service longer then of right itt was due, did not att the expiracon of the said Eight years, discharge yor petr. from his service, but compelled him to serve three yeares longer then the time sett by the said Mrs: Beazleys will, and then not being willing yr. petr. should Inioy his freedom, did contrary to all honesty & good conscience, with threats & a high hand, in the time of yor. petrs. Service with him, and by his confedracy with some persons, compell yor. petr. to sett his hand to a writeing, which the said Mr. Lucas now saith, is an Indenture for twenty yeares, and forcet yor. petr. to acknowledge the same in the County court of Warwick.
Now for that may itt please yor. honrs: yor. petr. was att the time of the makeing thes said forst writeing, in the service of the said Mr. Lucas and never discharged from the same, the said Mr: Lucas alwaies uniustly pretending that yor. petr. was to serve him three yeares longer, by an order of Court is untrue, which pretenses of the said Mr. Lucas will appeare to yor. honrs. by t[he] testimony of persons of good creditt: Yor: Petr. therefore most humbly prayeth yor. honrs. to order that the said writeing soe forced from him be made void; and that the ssid Mr. Luca[s] make him sattisfacion for the said three yeares service above his tim[e] and pay him Corne & Clothes with costs of Suite: And yor. petr. (as in duty bound) shall ever pray &c. Source: Undated petition of Phillip Gowen to Governor Sir William Berkeley, ca. 1675. Colonial Papers, folder 19, no. 2, Record Group 1, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia.
[Proceeding from the 16th Day of June 1675]
Gowen vs Lucas Phillip Gowen negro Suing Mr Jno Lucas to this Court for his freedome It is Ordered that the said Phill Gowen be free from ye Said Mr Lucas his Service and that the Indenture Acknowledg’d in Warwick County County [sic] be invalid and that ye Said Mr Lucas pay unto ye Gowen three Barrels of Corne att the Cropp According to ye Will of Mrs Amye Boazlye decd wth Costs
Source: H. R. McIlwaines, ed., Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonia Virginia, p. 441.
1718 Jan 2 – Robert Hubbard receives escheat land from Mihil Goen – 37 acres escheat land. Beg.g at a corner between Mihil Goen, Robert Hubbard and Francis Moreland. James City County, Va. http://image.lva.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/drawer?retrieve_image=LONN&dir=/LONN/LO-1/010-1/010&image_number=0432&offset=%2B17&name=Patents+No.10+1710-1719&dbl_pgs=no&round=
1738 Sept 3 – Aaron Gowen,
was baptized September 3, 1738, according to St. Peters Parish Register, page 134. The birth was also recorded in the vestry book of James City County. James City County, Va
From Gowen Manuscript: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gowenrf/Gowenms146.htm
JAMES CITY COUNTY, VIRGINIA
Archaeologists believe they may have discovered the skeleton of the man considered to be the main force behind the first permanent English settlement in America. He also is an ancestor to thousands of present-day Americans.
Archeologists digging inside the location of the 17th-century Jamestown fort uncovered the skeleton a few weeks ago. Given its placement and the ceremonial artifacts found alongside the body, researchers believe that it is the skeleton of Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold. Using modern-day high-tech techniques, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities hopes to prove or disprove that assumption.
The association, which began excavating the fort area in 1994, is arranging DNA tests to compare the remains to the DNA of Gosnold’s descendants.
A native of Suffolk, England, Gosnold pushed the English to send out another group of explorers and settlers after the disappearance of the Roanoke colony sometime around 1587 in what is now North Carolina’s Outer Banks. In 1602, Gosnold led an expedition to the Maine and Massachusetts coasts, where he discovered and named Cape Cod for the fish found there, and Martha’s Vineyard, for his infant daughter, Martha Gosnold. As commander of the “Godspeed,” he was second-in-command in the three-ship fleet that landed the 107 Virginia Company settlers at Jamestown in May of 1607. He helped design the triangular fort where they lived. Capt. John Smith, credited with leading and ultimately saving the colony, described Gosnold as “the prime mover behind the settlement.”
Gosnold died in August of 1607 after three weeks of illness. About two-thirds of the settlers died that summer.
Aaron Gowan, son of George Gowan and Sarah Gowan, was born June 9, 1738 and baptized September 3, 1738, according to a vestry book of James City County.
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