States and Counties nearby to search with Going/Gowen populations:
- South Carolina – Fairfield County
- South Carolina – Chester County
- South Carolina – Union County
- South Carolina – York County
- South Carolina – Greenville County
- South Carolina – Spartanburg County
- South Carolina – Charleston County
- South Carolina – Colleton County
- South Carolina – Kershaw County
- South Carolina – Lancaster County
- South Carolina – Anderson County
- South Carolina – Beaufort District/County
- South Carolina – Clarendon County
- South Carolina – Georgetown County / District
- South Carolina – Marion County
- South Carolina – Richland County
- South Carolina – Sumter County
- South Carolina – Liberty County
- North Carolina – Rutherford County
- North Carolina – Lincoln County
- North Carolina – Tryon County
- North Carolina – Moore County
- North Carolina – Granville County
- North Carolina – Cumberland County
- North Carolina – Orange County
- North Carolina – Caswell County
- State – Georgia
South Carolina county boundary changes, “Rotating Formation South Carolina County Boundary Maps” (1682-1987) may be viewed for free at the MapofUS.org website.
FamilySearch Wiki page: https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Colleton_County,_South_Carolina_Genealogy
People related to Colleton Co, SC
- Benjamin Gowen 1753 mortgage
- George Gowen 1753 account owed
- John Gowen 1754 creditor
- Henry Goings 1759 note owed
- 1732 James Gowen m. Mary Polly Keating in Beaufort District, South Carolina
- John Gowen 1804 admr of James Gowen decd
- Alexander Gowens 1769 signed note (free negro)
SOURCES and EVENTS:
1734 Aug 8: RADNOR TOWN plat and town plan:
South Carolina. The above plat represents the form and shape of one hundred acres of land or there abouts situate in Granville County on the south west side of Combahee River butting and bounding to the north eastward on the said River to the southeastward on Col John Palmer’s land to southwestward on Mr Stephen Bull’s and to the northwestward on a small creek and marsh belonging to Mr. John Muiyner about thirty of the said one hundred acres are laid out into lotts and streets with certain lots set apart and reserved for the use of a Chappel and free school and also a square piece of land for a market plan near the center of the Town which is called and known by the name of Randor and seventy acres lying the remaining part of the said one hundred acres is also set apart reserved and appropriated to be remain and continue for a Common to the said Town of Randor for the use and benefit of the inhabitants thereoff for ever which said Town and common was laid out for the purposes aforesaid and a plat thereof certified the eighth day of August Anno Domini One Thousand Seven hundred and thirty four.
A true Copy from the original} By me: Wm Bull
Daniel H Fillinghart (or Billinghart) Jun Genl.
1753 Benjamin Gowen gave a mortgage securing the purchase of five slaves bought from John Calder and Capt. William Lawton, planter of Edisto Island in March 1753, according to “South Carolina Magazine of History.” South Carolina.
1753 Aug 24 – George Gowen listed as an account owed at Robert Hill’s tavern in Edmundson, Ashepoo, South Carolina (Ashepoo, in Colleton County). The note part of Robert Hill’s estate in 1759. Tavernkeeper. Ashepoo, SC. https://www.fold3.com/image/266970938
1754 March 21 account sales of Robert Futhy decd estate credit to the first January next 1755. Interest from the date hereof giving sufficient and approved security no property to be altered before such security is given. John Gowin a case of Hunthe . . . Joseph Roper 2 bibles . . . Creditor: By cash of John Gowin 4 pounds. . . sworn on 1756 Jan 26. Craven County, South Carolina. https://www.fold3.com/image/305665173
1754 March 21: an estate sale of Robert Futhy, decd, was held and accounting was turned into the court on January 26, 1756. The 2nd page shows John Gowin appears to buy a case of Huntherd? Accounting shows cash of John Gowin by case of Andrew Johnston, 28.10. Craven County, South Carolina.
1759 Feb 4 – 1759 Feb Henry Goings note dated Feb 1759 . . . note made payable to William Lankford and assigned by Lankford to William Little decd . . . Thomas Langfords note dated 1758 . . . in an inventory of the estate of William Little decd appraised by Philip Sledger, Thomas Lide, and John Jenkins appointed to appraise the said estate . . . Catherine Little administratrix of the said estate given under our hands this Dec 18, 1767, signed Philip Pledger, John Jenkins, Thomas Lide. Craven County, South Carolina.
1765 – About 1765 James Gowen was married to Mary “Polly” Keating, believed to be age 15. The bride’s surname is undocumented, but there are indications that her name was Keating. The marriage apparently took place in Beaufort District in the southern tip of the state. They lived on the Combahee River at a settlement then called Combahee Ferry. Beaufort Dist, SC
1768 April 25: James Gowen, John Keating, and John Ohear are appraisers of the estate of James Clark, deceased, with Margaret Clark, administrator. records in Charleston, South Carolina. 1768 April 25 inventory of appraisement of effects of estate of James Clarke decd, administatrix is Margaret Clark. Wits: John Keating, John O’Hear, James Gowen. South Carolina
1769 May 1: Alexander Gowens of N Bartholows Parish in South Carolina, a carpenter sells a slave named Primus to Betty Wise. Signed: Alexr. Gowen. Witnessed by Charles Roberts. Proved up by Charles Roberts on May 24, 1769 who states . . . he was personally present and did see the within named Alexander Gowen a free negro sign seal and as his act and deed deliver the within instrument of writing to Mrs Betty Wise . . . Recorded in Charleston, SC. May 26, 1769. Colleton County, South Carolina.
1770: JAMES GOWEN VS HILL SAMWAYES, JUDGMENT ROLL.
Series: S136002 Box: 088A Item: 0180A ignore: 000
Names indexed: GOWEN, JAMES; SAMWAYES, HILL
Document type: JUDGMENT-ROLL. South Carolina.
1771 Jan 22 Inventory and appraisement of Benjamin Smith decd, with James Gowan on a note for 300 in South Carolina. Inventory Book Y, 1769-1771.
1771 Aug 9: James Gowin listed as a debt of inventory of estate of John Graves, decd on Fold3. South Carolina.
1772 March 13 – James Gowen, carpenter, and Sarah his wife, formerly Sarah Beamor post bond to John Stanyarne, planter, for 65 pounds Condition of bond is James Gowen and Sarah his wife to do everything to observe and fullfill the above sale between John Stanyarne and Mary Beamor (eldest sister to Sarah – wife of James Gowen). Signed by James Gowen and Sarah Gowen, both with their mark “X”. Signed in presence of witness Patk Coil. Proved up by Patrick Coil on March 18, 1772. Recorded June 11, 1772. Deed Book 3X pg 275. Colleton County, South Carolina. 1771 Dec 14: Mary Beamor, seamstress grants to John Stanyarne of John’s Island a release granted and released for 65 pounds 130 acres to John Stanyarne. Signed by Mary Beamor – “M” her mark. Witnessed by Wm Sams and Elizth Sams Proved up on Dec 14, 1771 in Colleton Co, SC by William Sams. GOWEN, JAMES AND WIFE TO JOHN STANYARNE, BOND. Series: S372001 Volume: 03X0 Page: 00275 Item: 000. Names indexed: GOWEN, JAMES; STANYARNE, JOHN. Document type: BOND. South Carolina.
The records for the following transactions indicate that James Gowen’s wife is a Sarah Beamor – and that Sarah Beamor’s eldest sister was a Mary Beamor. It appears that James Gowen’s first wife was Sarah Beamor – and that he later married Mary Polly Keating. —– Know all men by these presents we James Gowen carpenter and Sarah his wife, formerly Sarah Beamor of the Province aforesaid (Colleton County, South Carolina) are bound and obliged to John Stanyarne planter of the Province aforesaid for 65 pounds . . . articles conditions and agreements mentioned in a certain Bill of Sale annexed and sealed on Dec 13, 1771 between Mary Beamor and John Stanyarne and Mary Beamor the eldest sister to the aforesaid Sarah. Signed: James Gowen, Sarah Gowen. Wit: Patrick Coil.
The transaction between John Stanyarne and Mary Beamor was for land described as: Mary Beamor in exchange for payment of 65 pounds by John Stanyarne, Mary Beamor conveys to John Stanyarne 130 acres on Johns Island, bounding land of John Stanyarne, William Mathewes, Alexander Hext decd, Abraham Waight . . . Signed: Mary Beamor. Wits: William Sams, Elizabeth Sams.
The following parts are the bond transactions for John Gowen and Sarah Beamor his wife and sister of Mary Beamor.
1772 Sept 1 – James Gowen plat for 300 acres in Prince Williams Parish, SC – bounded on all sides by vacant land. Prince Williams Parish, SC. Map shows this to be in either Hampton Co, or Beaufort Co, SC:
1772 Sept 7: JAMES GOWEN, PLAT FOR 300 ACRES IN PRINCE WILLIAMS PARISH. Series: S213184 Volume: 0016 Page: 00171 Item: 02 Names indexed: BREMAR, JOHN; FORSTER, ALEXIUS MADOR; GOWEN, JAMES Document type: PLAT Locations: PRINCE WILLIAM PARISH, South Carolina.
1772 Oct 30: HOLMAN, THOMAS, PLAT FOR 1,000 ACRES ON SALKEHATCHIE RIVER. Series: S213184 Volume: 0017 Page: 00045 Item: 01 Names indexed: BREMAR, JOHN; FORSTER, ALEXIUS MADOR; JAMES GOWEN; HOLMAN, THOMAS; ODINGSALE, CHARLES Document type: PLAT Locations: GRANVILLE COUNTY; SALKEHATCHIE RIVER, South Carolina.
1772 Nov 19: JAMES GOWEN, LAND GRANT FOR 300 ACRES IN PRINCE WILLIAMS PARISH. Series: S213019 Volume: 0027 Page: 00273 Item: 000. Names indexed: GOWEN, JAMES. Document type: LAND GRANT Locations: PRINCE WILLIAM PARISH, South Carolina.
1773 James Gowen in Fitzgerald estate in SC on Fold3 1773 abt: Estate of Doctor Alexander Fitzgerald, deceased sales of estate show buyers including James Gowen x2, William Ferguson, John Keating x 6, by Joseph Dobbins, executor, in Fold3. South Carolina. https://www.fold3.com/image/305704716/?terms=Gowen 1773 abt: 1773 Sales of sundries belonging to the Estate of Doctor Alexander Fitzgerald decd – . . . John Keating for som Pewter . . . John Keating 2 jars and honey . . . John Keating chairs . . . John Keating for books . . . John Keating for cups . . . James Gowen for bowls . . . James Gowen decanters . . . signed by Joseph Dobbins executor. South Carolina. https://www.fold3.com/image/305704716
1773 Feb 23: JAMES GOWEN, MEMORIAL FOR 300 ACRES IN PRINCE WILLIAMS PARISH. Series: S111001 Volume: 0012 Page: 00115 Item: 001 Names indexed: GOWEN, JAMES Document type: MEMORIAL Locations: PRINCE WILLIAM PARISH, South Carolina.
1773 April 28: HOLLMAN, THOMAS, MEMORIAL FOR TWO TRACTS, ONE FOR 700 ACRES IN GRANVILLE COUNTY AND ONE FOR 1,000 ACRES ON SALTCATCHERS RIVER. Series: S111001 Volume: 0012 Page: 00166 Item: 006 Names indexed: GARNER, WILLIAM; JAMES GOWEN; HOLLMAN, THOMAS; ODINGSALE, CHARLES; TUE, JOHN Document type: MEMORIAL Locations: GRANVILLE COUNTY; SALKEHATCHIE RIVER, South Carolina.
1775 Oct 20 – 1775 Oct 20: Roll of Capt Darius Dalton’s Company of Volunteer Militia. Addressed: To the Honorable Council of Safety/Charles Town
Prince Williams Parish–20th October 1775
Gentlemen, We whose names are under written; having formed ourselves into a Company of Volunteers, either to Act as Horsemen or Footmen, in defence of our Liberties & Country, which so loudly calls upon us for so doing; do with due submission — petition the Honorable the Council of Safety, to grant unto us Commissions for Our Officers which we have chosen by a Majority of Votes, Vizt . . . Darius Dalton Capt., Charles Browne first Lieut, Joseph Ainger second Lieut, & James Gowen third Lieut under the names of the Swift & Bold – for which we shall be thankfull –
We are with respect –
P.S. As we have sent a boy down with this, by whom the Commissions ay be sent} Gentlemen/ Yr Most humble servants:
John Cockran, Darius Dalton, Saml Jones, Charles Browne, Thos Marshall, Joseph Ainger, George Farrar, James Gowen, Richd Keating, Isaac Hirde, Josiah Tilley, Francis Thos Greene, Stephen Swan, James Francis Dalton, James McKewn, Joseph Dopson, Nathl Tilley, Jacob Auton, Francis Chosolme, John Barlow, Joseph Alexander, Andw McCarley, William Harvey, Richd West, Thos Stone, John Bonueu, James Stone, John Gatch, John Ferguson, John Russell, Wm Smith, Benja Deau, Florence Dunnovant, John Malkin, Wm Murray, John Allen, John Keating, Daniel Ellis, Andw Fornea, Seth Prior, James Miscampbell, John Stoney, John Swinney, John Lesur, Cornelius McCartey, Turner Myrick, John Pescotte . . 54 – Saml Fletcher, John Roberts, Robert Anderson, Moses Grainger, Peter Boizell, John Adam Eirick, Phillip Ulmer 30.
Endorsed: Capt Charles Brownes Volunteer Company of Dragoons– Commissions granted the 28th October 1775. From the private collection of A.S. Salley, Jr. See The Sunday News, Charleston, S.C., March 12, 1899. The South Carolina Historical Magazine 3 and 4, pgs 82-83.
( Note: Among the signatures were those of Richard Keating and John Keating, believed to be brothers-in-law to James Gowen. Several Keating individuals appeared in the records of the Charleston-Combahee Ferry area during that period. “Alexander Broughton, 2nd son of Capt. Nathaniel Broughton, was married to Mary Jones Keating, widow of Maurice Keating,” according to “South Carolina Historical Magazine.” “Mr. Matthew Keating, a native of Ireland, 26 years of age, died on Saturday last after a short illness,” according to a report in a Charleston newspaper published “Wednesday, August 26, 1807.”) Prince William Parish, SC.
1776: GOWEN, JAMES, ACCOUNT AUDITED (FILE NO. 3013) OF CLAIMS GROWING OUT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.
Series: S108092 Reel: 0058 Frame: 00319 ignore: 000
Names indexed: GOWEN, JAMES. South Carolina.
1777 Feb 17 – James Gowen on a bond in SC on a “Book of Account” in an appraisal of the Estate of Daniel DeSoussure, by Mary DeSaussure in 1798. 1777 Feb 17: James Gowen listed in warrant of appraisement of estate of Daniel DeSausoure, decd in Charleston, South Carolina. https://www.fold3.com/image/265613596/?terms=Gowen
1785: SMART, JAMES VS JAMES GOWEN, JUDGMENT ROLL. Series: S136002 Box: 118A Item: 0233A ignore: 000 Names indexed: GOWEN, JAMES; SMART, JAMES
Document type: JUDGMENT-ROLL, South Carolina
1785: CARMAN, ANDREW VS JAMES GOWEN, JUDGMENT ROLL. Series: S136002 Box: 118A Item: 0244A ignore: 000 Names indexed: CARMAN, ANDREW; GOWEN, JAMES Document type: JUDGMENT-ROLL, South Carolina
1785 March 16 James Gowen sells slaves to Richard Keating in SC named July, Ginney, Peggy, Betty, Tom, Smart, Peggy, Bellar, Sarah, Rachae in Prince William Parish, SC. Miscellaneous records, v. WW 1785-1787. p 334 (pg 175 in FamilySearch). Prince William County, South Carolina.
1785 June 29 – On June 29, 1785 James Gowen and Mary “Polly” Keating Gowen“of Combahee” and Richard Keating signed a contract. For a consideration of five shillings paid to James Gowen by Richard Keating “the said James Gowen agreeing not to interfere with his wife’s business, but that he, his heirs or executors shall not be liable for any debt or debts which the said Mary Gowen shall, or may hereafter, contract in carrying out her sole, separate trade.” To reciprocate James Gowen gave his bond to Richard Keating “in trust to and for the said Mary Gowen in the penal sum of £200 sterling.” The agreement was witnessed by James Lunsden and Susanna Donovan, and it was acknowledged in Charleston June 29, 1785 and recorded November 18, 1785 in Charleston Mixed Record Book, page 20. Charleston, SC Gowen Manuscript: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gowenrf/gowenms014.htm
1785 July 4: James Gowen, Richard Estes, and Benjamin Elliot are appraisers in the estate of Samuel Blinco, planter in SC on Fold3, 11v, No 47. pgs 342 to 343. Appraisement of goods and chattles belonging to estate of Samuel Blinco, planter decd, produced by Charles Smith, Richard Estes, James Gowen, and Benjamin Elliott appraisers. Charleston, South Carolina.
1785 Aug 15 & 16: James Gowen of Prince Williams Parish, planter, to John Gowen, planter, for 400 pounds sterling, lot in Radnor Town, known in the plan of said town, no. 2, on Bay Street. James Gowen (LS), Wits: William Hall, Edwd Ferguson. Proved in Charleston Dist by the oath of William Hall on April 12, 1788 before Saml Elliot, JP Rec. Apr 25, 1788. Z5, p 446. Charleston Dist, South Carolina.
1786: GERVAIS, JOHN LEWIS VS JAMES GOWEN, JUDGMENT ROLL. Series: S136002 Box: 127A Item: 0255A ignore: 000 Names indexed: GERVAIS, JOHN LEWIS; GOWEN, JAMES Document type: JUDGMENT-ROLL. South Carolina
1786 Feb: CALDWELL, HENRY AND JONAH RIVERS, OTHERWISE CALLED, HENRY CALDWELL AND CO. VS JAMES GOWEN, SUMMARY PROCESS ROLL. Series: S136011 Year: 1786 Item: 0009A ignore: 000 Names indexed: CALDWELL, HENRY; GOWEN, JAMES; RIVERS, JONAH Document type: SUMMARY PROCESS ROLL Topics: HENRY CALDWELL AND CO. South Carolina
1787 Oct 7: James Gowen on note in Robt Branston decd estate in SC on Fold3. Charleston, South Carolina. 1787 Oct 27 goods and chattels of Mr Robert Branston decd, showing a note from James Gowen. SC
1788 May 10: JAMES GOWEN JR., PLAT FOR 107 ACRES ON COMBAKEE RIVER, BEAUFORT DISTRICT, SURVEYED BY ELIAS ROBERT. Series: S213190 Volume: 0022 Page: 00308 Item: 001 Names indexed: GOWEN, JAMES; GOWEN, JAMES JR.; MIDDLETON; ROBERT, ELIAS; SOMERSALL Document type: PLAT Locations: BEAUFORT DISTRICT; COMBAHEE RIVER, South Carolina
1789: GERVAIS, JOHN LEWIS VS MARY GOWEN, EXIX. OF JAMES GOWEN, JUDGMENT ROLL. Series: S136002 Box: 146A Item: 0416A ignore: 000 Names indexed: GERVAIS, JOHN LEWIS; GOWEN, JAMES; GOWEN, MARY Document type: JUDGMENT-ROLL. South Carolina
1789: HARVEY, MARY VS RICHARD KEATING, SURVIVOR OF JAMES GOWEN, JUDGMENT ROLL. Series: S136002 Box: 146A Item: 0420A ignore: 000 Names indexed: GOWEN, JAMES; HARVEY, MARY; KEATING, RICHARD Document type: JUDGMENT-ROLL. South Carolina
1791 Nov 7: MINOR, WILLIAM AND GEORGE LATHAM, PLAT FOR 4,500 ACRES ON MILLERS SWAMP, ORANGEBURG DISTRICT, SURVEYED BY WILLIAM MINOR. Series: S213212 Volume: 0001 Page: 00197 Item: 003 Names indexed: BROWN, TARLTON; CREECH, RICHARD JR.; JAMES GOWEN; HODGE, DAVID; JENKINS, A.; LATHAM, GEORGE; MINOR, WILLIAM; MYERS; NEWMAN, JOHN; NEWMAN, WILLIAM; UGLY, ANDREW; WEEKLEY, WILLIAM Document type: PLAT Locations: INDIAN CAMP BRANCH; MILLERS SWAMP; ORANGEBURG DISTRICT; SALKEHATCHIE RIVER; WINTON COUNTY, South Carolina.
1791 Nov 7: MINOR, WILLIAM JR., PLAT FOR 1,160 ACRES IN WINTON COUNTY, ORANGEBURGH DISTRICT, SURVEYED BY WILLIAM MINOR. Series: S213190 Volume: 0027 Page: 00419 Item: 001 Names indexed: JAMES GOWAN; HODGE, DAVID; MINOR, GEORGE LATHAM; MINOR, SAMUEL WRIGHT; MINOR, WILLIAM; MINOR, WILLIAM JR.; NORRIS Document type: PLAT Locations: ORANGEBURG DISTRICT; WINTON COUNTY, South Carolina
1800 “James Gowen, white male over 45″ living alone was enumerated in the 1800 census of Beaufort District, page 100. This individual is believed to be James Gowen, Jr, son of James Gowen and Mary “Polly” Keating Gowen. Beaufort Dist, SC. Gowen Manuscript: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gowenrf/gowenms014.htm
1802 Feb 1 James Gowen of Prince William Parish sells slave to George Keckely in Combahee SC
1802 Feb 13: WISH, WILLIAM AND JONATHAN BRYAN, OTHERWISE CALLED, WISH AND BRYAN VS JAMES GOWEN, JUDGMENT ROLL. (13 PAGES) Series: L10018 Year: 1802 Item: 0239A ignore: 000 Names indexed: BRYAN, JONATHAN; GOWEN, JAMES; WISH, WILLIAM Document type: JUDGMENT-ROLL, Topics: WISH AND BRYAN, South Carolina.
1802 Feb 13: WISH, WILLIAM AND JONATHAN BRYAN, OTHERWISE CALLED, WISH AND BRYAN VS JAMES GOWEN, JUDGMENT ROLL. (12 PAGES) Series: L10018 Year: 1802 Item: 0240A ignore: 000 Names indexed: BRYAN, JONATHAN; GOWEN, JAMES; WISH, WILLIAM Document type: JUDGMENT-ROLL Topics: WISH AND BRYAN, South Carolina.
1802 Feb 26: James Gowen buying slave in SC on Fold3 1802 Feb 26: JAMES GOWEN OF PRINCE WILLIAM PARISH TO GEORGE KECKELY, BILL OF SALE FOR A SLAVE NAMED GRACE AND HER CHILD, LIDDY. Series: S213003 Volume: 003N Page: 00305 Item: 000 Names indexed: JAMES GOWEN; GRACE (SLAVE); KECKELY, GEORGE; LIDDY (SLAVE) Topics: SLAVES, NAMED Document type: BILL OF SALE Locations: PRINCE WILLIAM PARISH, South Carolina
1804 May 16 A list of cash on hand, obligation, book acct, open acts, apartments and Copardership, Books Due William Gowen at his Decease May 16, 1804. A note given to Gideon Hester by John Molton due Nov 1, 1802; a note given by John Molton on demand Feb 21, 1805; an order given by Elias Earle on John Molton July 12, 1803; a note on James Pennington due Oct 1, 1804 to be paid in Horses; a note on Robert Cannon on Nov 1, 1804; a note on James Gowen decd due Nov 25, 1802, a note on John Vineyard, a note on Farm duel Nov 12 1802; amount due by widow Poly Gowen Cohembee and acknowledge; balance of an act in hands of Henry Elmore; amount due by Isom Drawdy; amount due by Edward Herndon.
TO book acct due by John Molton; amount due by Thomas Brummetts, DESP Thomas Wood (desperate) due; James Blassingame due; James Gall; DESP Benjamin Hawkins (Desperate); James Gillison; Lewis Frazer; David Reed; James Gowen due on a temporary settlement; Amount due by Stephen C Wood on the close of the copardnership (Desperate). Signed: John Gowen, admr. Greenville County, SC.
From Gowen Manuscript: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gowenrf/Gowenms100.htm
Henry F. Gowan was enumerated in the 1880 census of Colleton County, Enumeration District 101, page 10, Broxson township:
“Gowan, Henry F. 33, born in NC
Bell 23, born in SC
Ann D. 1, born in SC
Gowan, Ann 77, born in NC, grandmother
In March 1753 Benjamin Gowen gave a note “for 300 pounds securing five slaves to Capt. William Lawton of Edisto Island, St. John’s Parish, according to “South Carolina Historical Magazine,” Volume 50 . Edisto Island is located in Colleton County, between Beaufort and Charleston.
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