1757 David Smith Going b. Sept 21, 1757 of Halifax Co, Va (Y3)

David Smith Going in Halifax Co, Va b. Sept 21, 1757 in Hanover per Rev War Pension Application.

Parents:

Shadrack Going b. 1725 and Hannah Going (unk maiden name).

Children:

Dudley Going b. 1791
Absolem Going b. 1795
David Going Jr. b. 1797

Siblings:

John Going
David Smith Going
James Going
Claborne Going
Solomon Going
Shadrack Going Jr
Caleb Going
Obadiah Going
Keziah Going,
Jerushe Going,
Fanny Bowlin, wife of Edmund Bowlin and
Hannah Beazley, wife of Thomas Beazley

FACTS:

“David Going of Halifax County” bought 270 acres for £55 from Joseph Tate of Rowan County, North Carolina, according to Halifax County Deed Book 1759-1767, page 440.

On October 4, 1780, in Halifax County, “Shadrack Going,” “David Going” and Peter Wilson witnessed the will of Stephen Wilson. The will was proved June 20, 1782 “by two witnesses [unnamed].”

Shadrach Going appeared in the 1782 tax list of Halifax County with 12 in his family. “Shadrack Going,” with 10 members in his household, appeared in the 1785 census of Halifax County, along with John Going, four members and David Going, four members, assumed to be his sons.

1782 Halifax Co, Va
Gutridge Going 1 tithe 2 horses, 8 cattle
[frame 4] –
Shadrack Going 1 tithe, 3 horses 18 cattle
John Going 1 tithe, 1 horse, 3 cattle
David Going 1 tithe 1 horse 4 cattle
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

Apparently David Smith Goins was married, wife’s name unknown, shortly after his return home. “David Going” was listed in the state census of Virginia of 1782 as the head of a household of two people in Halifax County, according to “Heads of Households, Virginia, 1790,” page 24. He reappeared in the 1785 state census of Halifax County as the head of a household of “four white souls,” according to the same volume. In 1787 in Halifax County “David Gowin” rendered for taxes “two horses and five head of cattle.”

About In the fall of 1787 he removed to Grayson County, Virginia and from there he relocated in adjoining Wythe County about 1791. (Verify)

1785 Halifax Co, Va
John Gowan 1 tithe 4 cattle
Shadrack Gowan 1 tithe 4 horses 13 cattle
David Gowan 1 tithe, 1 horse, 4 cattle
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1789 Halifax Co, Va
David Goen 1 tithe 1 horse [frame 302]
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1792 Halifax Co Va
David Going Mo 1 tithe 2 horses –
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1793 Halifax Co Va
David Going Mulo 1 tithe 2 horses
[frame 442]
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1796 Halifax Co Va
David Going (at Walnes) 1 tithe
[frame 635]
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1797 Halifax Co Va
David Going (at Walne’s)
[frame 732]
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1798 Halifax Co Va
David Goinn
[frame 819]
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1800 Halifax Co Va
Goin Edwards Junr F.N. 1 tithe
David Goin 1 tithe 1 horse
[frame 59]
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1801 Halifax Co Va
David Goin Planter D.C. 1 tithe 1 horse (free negro)
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1802 Halifax Co Va
Gutridge Goin Mulatto 1 tithe
[frame 186]
David Goin Mulatto 1 tithe 2 horses
[frame 187]
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1803 Halifax Co Va
David Goin Mulatto 1 tithe
Gutridge Goin Mulatto 1 tithe
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1804 Halifax Co Va
David Goin Mulatto 1 tithe 1 horse
[frame 372]
Gutridge Goin Mulatto 1 tithe
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1805 Halifax Co Va
David Goin Mulatto 1 tithe 1 horse
[frame 517]
Birbrige Goin Mulatto 1 tithe
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1806 Halifax Co Va
David Going (Mulatto) 3 tithes 2 horses
[frame 626]
Berbridge Going F.N. 1 tithe
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/HalifaxVa.htm

1807 David Goin 3 tithes 2 horses [frame 325] Grayson Co Va
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/grayson.htm

1809 David Going 1 tithe 3 horses [frame 352] Grayson Co Va
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/grayson.htm

David Gowin appeared as the head of a household in the 1810 census of Wythe County, according to “Index to 1810 Vir­ginia Census” by Madeline W. Crickard. “David Goyen” was enumerated as the head of a free colored household composed of two people in the 1810 census.

1811 B, List of James Newell, Wythe County
David Gowen 2 tithes 2 horses [frame 223]
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/virginiatax.htm

1812 A, List of James Newell, Wythe County
Dudley Gowin 1 tithe 1 horse [frame 236]
David Gowin 1 tithe 2 horses
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/virginiatax.htm

1813 A, List of James R. Kent, Wythe County
column for “Free Negroes and Mullatoes” written here as “FN”
Dudley Goens (a free Negro) [writing is faded or partially erased] 2 white tithes, 1 horse 2 FN [frame 266]
Same David Goens 2 white tithes, 1 horse, 1 FN
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/virginiatax.htm

1814 A, List of James R. Kent, Wythe County
column for “Free Negroes & Mullatoes” written here as “FN”
David Going 1 white tithe 1 horse [frame 302]
Dudly Going 1 white tithe 1 horse
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/virginiatax.htm

1816 A, List of John A. Sanders
David Gown 2 tithe 2 horses [frame 393]
Absolem Goen 1 tithe
Dudley Goen 1 tithe 1 horse
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/virginiatax.htm

1817 A, List of John A. Sanders
Dudley Goin 1 tithe [frame 424]
David Goen 2 tithes 2 horses
Absolem Goen 1 tithe
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/virginiatax.htm

1818, List of John Stanger
Dudley Goen 1 tithe 1 horse [frame 471]
Absolem Goen 1 tithe 1 horse
David Goen Sr 1 tithe 2 horses
David Goen Jr 1 tithe
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/virginiatax.htm

1820, List of John A. Sanders
David Goen Sr 1 tithe 2 horses [frame 528]
David Goen Jr 1 tithe
Absolem Goen 1 tithe 1 horse
http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/virginiatax.htm
“David Goin” was recorded as the head of a household of two people in the 1820 census of Wythe County. The family was enumerated as 000100-00001

“David Gowin” was listed as the head of a household in the 1810 census of Wythe County, according to “Index to 1810 Virginia Census” by Madeline W. Crickard. About 1811 he moved again to Grainger County, Tennessee “where he had a brother, Laban Goin,” according to his pension application.

The 1820 census of Grainger County [and all but 10 counties of Tennessee] was destroyed by a fire in Washington, and no copy remains. “David S. Going, free negro” appeared in the 1821 tax list of Grainger County and paid a tax on “one free poll.” “David Goan” reappeared in the 1830 census of Grainger County, page 359, heading a household of “free colored persons.” It is believed that David Smith Goins removed to Hamilton County, Tennessee to join his brother Laban Goins, about 1832.

In 1830, the federal census of Grainger County, Tennessee listed him as “David Goan, free colored.” In 1832, he applied for his pension at age 76 in Hamilton County, Tennessee. He died there February 26, 1834. His pension file states in 1840 that his pension was paid to his children [unnamed].

During his life he was sometimes enumerated as “white” and sometimes as “free colored.” His family removed to Halifax County prior to the Revolution. He enlisted there in a militia company commanded by “Capt. Rogers,” according to his pension application:

1834 Feb 26 – Rev War Pension App: Pension Application of David Goens S3406 VA
Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon Harris. Revised 15 Nov 2014.

State of Tennessee }
Hamilton County } S.S. 

On this twenty ninth day of February 1834 personally appeared in open Court before the Worshipful Justices of the Court of Pleas & Quarter Sessions of Hamilton County, now sitting David Goens a resident of the said County of Hamilton and State aforesaid, aged seventy six years who being first duly sworn according to law doth on is oath make the following Declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the act of Congress passed June 7th 1832 – That he entered the service of the United States under the following named officers and served as herein stated that is to say, as a volunteer under Captain Rogers in Halifax County State of Virginia, and was mustered into service in his company under Col. William Terry at Halifax Court house, and was marched by him from Halifax Court house to Williamsburg, from Williamsburg to Norfolk and from Norfolk to Portsmouth, where this applicant was discharged by Captain Rogers, which discharge this applicant thinks and believes he gave up when he was paid for his service in performing this tour, after he returned home, having served three months before being
discharged as above mentioned (the troops were entirely militia with whom this applicant served as above stated,).

Six or eight months after this applicant returned home he was drafted, according to his number, under Captain Bates and joined the regiment at Bibbs ferry [on Staunton River] under Major Jones being marched there by Capt. Bates, all in Halifax County Va. and was marched from there to Cabbin Point below Petersburg Va. [sic: Cabin Point in Surry County] and was stationed there about two months or until our term of service expired, having served three months this tour and was discharged by Capt. Bates and returned home. this applicant sold this discharge for three months service as last above mentioned to one David Bates in Halifax County Va. at that time it was thought by some that the militia would not get pay for their service. about two years after the last mentioned service this applicant was again drafted according to his number under Captain Prigmore in Halifax County Va. and marched under him (the field officers names this applicant has by old age and loss of memory forgotten) and joined General Washingtons army at Portsmouth where this applicant remained about two months before the surrender of Cornwallis [on 19 Oct 1781], soon after his term of service expired and he was discharged by his captain (Prigmore) and returned home having served three months this Tour.

This last discharge was kept by this applicant until about four years ago. this applicant then lived in the district represented by Pryor Lea, in Congress to whom he gave it for the purpose of obtaining a pension – this applicant being poor and unable to support himself – after Mr Lea returned from Congress this applicant made application to know if anything had been done for him Mr. Lea told him that he had lost or misplaced his discharge so that he could not find it and afterwards this applicant removed from Grainger County then in Mr Leas district to this County, about one hundred and thirty miles and is now unable to procure Mr Leas statement with regard to the loss of his discharge as above stated. This applicant knows that he served three tours as a private in the militia as he has stated that he did not become acquainted with any Regular officers whose names he recollects – having served with none in either of his first tours. In his last tour while at Portsmouth under Gen’l. Washington he was in service with Continental troops as well as militia, but has forgotten the names of the continental officers in service there except General Washington himself He states that he was born in Hanover County state of Virginia in the year 1757 the 21st day of September[?] he has no record of his age nor never had but from the information derived from his father and mother the above statement is correct.

He has stated where he was living when called into service four or five years after the termination of the Revolutionary War he removed from Halifax Co Va to Grayson Co. Va where he resided three years. from there he removed to Wythe Co Va. and resided there ten years from there he removed to Grainger County (Tennessee) and resided there fourteen years from there he removed to this (Hamilton County Te.) and has resided here twelve months the last day of this month and still resides here. He has stated how he was called into service, as well as he can recollect also the names of the officers with whom and under whom he served, and all the circumstances of his services as far as he remembers. He is known in his present Neighborhood to [blank] who can testify as to his character for veracity and good behavior and services as a Soldier of the Revolution. he knows of no person who can testify (or whose testimony he can procure) to his his service except a younger Brother (Laban Goen) who knows that this applicant went out and returned from service as stated who is now and for several years has been a resident of this County (Hamilton) There is no clergyman in the neighborhood of this applicant who can testify for him, there being none in his neighborhood at all.

I hereby relinquish every claim whatever to a pension or annuity except the present, and declare that my name is not on the pension roll of the Agency of any state–
David hisXmark Goens

“I Laban Goens a resident of Hamilton County and state of Tennessee do hereby certify that (being aged seventy years) David Goens an elder brother of mine did enter the service of the United States and return therefrom as he has stated in his declaration to which he has been sworn & which he has subscribed. I was not in the service with him but both of us lived with our parents when he entered and returned from the service, and I well recollect that he served three, three months tours in the Revolutionary War. being entirely illiterate I can not recollect the dates when he performed his service but do recollect that it was at and before the time of the surrender of Cornwallis. Laban hisXmark Goens”

NOTE: The 1830 federal census for Grainger County TN lists “David Goan” as a “Free Colored Person” aged 55 – 100, and that for Hamilton County TN lists “Laban Gowan” as a “Free Colored Person” aged 55 – 100. A Treasury-Department document states that the children of David Goens received the final pension paper up to the date of his death, 30 Nov 1840. https://revwarapps.org/s3406.pdf , https://www.fold3.com/image/22046869

“David Goins, age 76” was listed as Revolutionary War Pensioner S3406 in Hamilton County in 1834, according to “Twenty Four Hundred Tennessee Pensioners” by Zella Armstrong.

David Smith Goins had died by 1840 in Hamilton County, “his pension then being paid to his children” [unnamed], according to pension records. He did not appear in the 1840 census of Hamilton County..

______________________________________

Serving Three Hitches . . .
David S. Goins, Melungeon
Ended the War at Yorktown

Prepared from research developed
By Louise Goins Richardson

David S. Goins, probably a Melungeon, was born in Hanover
County, Virginia November 21, 1757, according to his Revolutionary
War pension application abstracted in “Tennessee
Heroes of the Revolution” by Zella Armstrong.

During his life he was sometimes enumerated as “white” and
sometimes as “free colored.” Apparently his family removed
to Halifax County, Virginia prior to the Revolution. He enlisted
there in a militia company commanded by “Capt.
Rogers,” according to his pension application dated February
27, 1834:

“David Goins, a resident of Hamilton County and State
of Tennessee, aged 76 years doth appear in open court
before the Worshipful Justices of the Court of Pleas &
Quarter Sessions of Hamilton County now sitting and
on his oath make the following Declaration:

That he entered the service of the United States as a
volunteer under Capt. Rogers in Halifax County, State
of Virginia and was mustered into service under Col.
William Terry at Halifax Courthouse, to Williamsburg,
from Williamsburg to Norfolk, and from Norfolk to
Portsmouth where he was discharged, having served
three months.

“Six or eight months after his return home, he was
drafted, according to his memory under Capt. Bates
and joined the regiment at Bibb’s Ferry under Maj.
Jones. He was marched from there to Cabbin Point
below Petersburg, Virginia and was stationed there
until his term of service expired, having served three
months this tour and was discharged by Capt. Bates
and returned home.

About two years after the last mentioned service, this
applicant was again drafted, according to his memory
under Capt. Pregmore in Halifax County. They
marched to join Gen. Washington’s army at Portsmouth
where this applicant remained about two months before
the surrender of Corn Wallis. About three days
afterward, his term of service expired, and he was
discharged by Capt. Pregmore and returned home,
having served three months this tour.

Four or five years after the termination of the
Revolutionary War [October 1781], he moved from
Halifax County to Grayson County, Virginia where he
resided three years. From there he moved to Wythe
County, Virginia and resided there for 10 years. From
there he moved to Grainger County and resided there
for 14 years. From there he moved to Hamilton
County, Tennessee and has resided here twelve months
the last day of this month and still resides here.”

Apparently David S. Goins was married shortly after his return
home. “David Going” was listed in the state census of
Virginia of 1782 as the head of a household of two people in
Halifax County, according to “Heads of Households, Virginia,
1790,” page 24. He reappeared in the 1785 state census
of Halifax County as the head of a household of “four white
souls,” according to the same volume. In 1787 in Halifax
County “David Gowin” rendered for taxes “two horses and
five head of cattle.” About 1788 he removed to Grayson
County and from there he relocated in adjoining Wythe
County about 1791.

“David Gowin” was listed as the head of a household in the
1810 census of Wythe County, according to “Index to 1810
Virginia Census” by Madeline W. Crickard. About 1811 he
moved again to Grainger County “where he had a brother, Laban
Goin,” according to his pension application.

The 1820 census of Grainger County [and all but 10 counties
of Tennessee] was destroyed by a fire in Washington, and no
copy remains. “David S. Going, free negro” appeared in the
1821 tax list of Grainger County and paid a tax on “one free
poll.” “David Goan” reappeared in the 1830 census of
Grainger County, page 359, heading a household of “free colored
persons.”

“David Goins, age 76” was listed as Revolutionary War Pensioner
S3406 in Hamilton County in 1834, according to
“Twenty Four Hundred Tennessee Pensioners” by Zella
Armstrong.

David S. Goins died in 1840 in Hamilton County, “his pension
then being paid to his children” [unnamed], according to pension
records. He did not appear in the 1840 census of
Hamilton County.

Children born to David S. Goins are unknown, however
Louise Goins Richardson, Foundation Editorial Board Member,
2207 E. Lake Street, Paragould, AR, 72450 is seeking to
document him as the grandfather of her great-grandfather,
Oscar Claiborne Goins.

Laban Goins, identified as a younger brother of David S.
Goins, was born in 1764 in Virginia, probably Hanover
County. He lived in Halifax County during the Revolutionary
War, but was too young to serve in the militia with his brother.

About 1800 Laban Goins removed, apparently with several
families of relatives, to Grainger County, Tennessee. The
1805 tax list of Grainger County included “Laborn Going,
Claborn Goins, Daniel Going, Caleb Going, James Goins and
John Goins. A second version of the “Taxable Inhabitants
for the Year 1805” listed “Laban Going, Claiborne Going,
Daniel Goin, Shadrack Goin, James Going, John Going and
Calib Going.”

Although the spelling varies from the first list to the second, it
is obvious that the two lists refer to the same individuals. Of
the second group only Shadrack Goin does not appear in the
first list. “Laborn Going” was rendered as “one free poll, negro”
in the tax list.

Laban Goins preceded his brother in the move to Hamilton
County. He appeared in the 1830 census of that county, page
75, as the head of a “free colored” household. The enumerator
obviously had no way to properly record a Melungeon household.

Although he did not record the “free colored”
individuals, he did enumerate in the household “one white female,
5-10” and “one white female, 0-5.”

On February 7, 1834 Laban Goins submitted his affidavit to
the Hamilton County Court attesting to his brother’s Revolutionary
War service.

From GRF Newsletter Dec 1997:

David Smith Going Fought in Battle of Yorktown

David Smith Going, son of Shadrach Going and regarded as a Melungeon, was born in Hanover County, Virginia November 21, 1757, according to his Revolutionary War pension ap-plication abstracted in “Tennessee Heroes of the Revolution” by Zella Armstrong.

Apparently he was the only one of 16 children with a middle name. It was not only unusual in colonial times for a child to have a middle name, but an old English law made it illegal. “Harpers Magazine,” in a 1900 edition, commented:

“Middle names were once illegal in England. Old English law was definite as to the naming of children, and according to Sir Edward Coke’s law commentary, ‘a man cannot have two names of baptism,’ and ‘on bills of sale, ‘that purchaser be named by the name of his baptism and his surname.’ Royal personages were always allowed to have more than one given name, but as late as 1600, it was said there were only four persons in all England who had two given names. In 1620, when the Mayflower sailed for America, not a man or a woman aboard had a middle name.”

David Smith Going was perhaps a namesake of an older family member or family friend, and researchers should investigate any Smith individuals that were associated with the Going family in Hanover County. By 1765, Shadrach Going had removed to Halifax County, on the south side of Virginia, where other family members lived. An older “David Going of Halifax County” bought 270 acres for oe55 from Joseph Tate of Rowan County, North Carolina, according to Halifax County Deed Book 1759-1767, page 440. “David Goan” in 1770 received land in Pittsylvania County which had been created from Halifax County in 1766.

At about age 19, David Smith Going was enlisted in a Halifax County militia company “under “Capt. Rogers” for 90-days service, according to his pension application. After returning home, he was drafted into another militia company “commanded by Capt. Bates” for another three months.

In the summer of 1781, he was again drafted “under Capt. Pregmore” and marched to Portsmouth, Virginia to join the troops of Gen. George Washington. His company was part of the 16,000 men which composed the American and French forces engaged in the Battle of Yorktown. The British force of 7,000 was quickly surrounded, and after a two-day battle, Lord Cornwallis surrendered his entire command, ending the Revolutionary War. The panorama of the battle and of the surrender ceremony must have left an indelible impression upon 23-year-old David Smith Going.

Apparently, shortly after his return home, he was married, wife’s name unknown. “David Going” was listed in the state census of Virginia of 1782 as the head of a household of two people in Halifax County. He reappeared in the 1785 state census of Halifax County as the head of a household of “four white souls,” according to the same volume. During his life-time, he was sometimes enumerated as “white” and sometimes as “free colored.”

The clerk who took the pension affidavit of David Smith Going recorded:

“Four or five years after the termination of the Revolutionary War [October 1781], he moved from Halifax County to Grayson County, Virginia where he resided three years. From there he moved to Wythe County, Virginia and resided there for 10 years.”

Either the 76-year veteran did not correctly remember, or the clerk misunderstood the chronology, because some errors crept into the affidavit. In 1787, when “David Gowin” rendered for taxes “two horses and five head of cattle,” he was still in Halifax County. He probably did not live in Grayson County next because it was not created until 1792. His residency in Wythe County, probably came first.

On March 30, 1789, “David Gowin” was granted 94 acres in Wythe County on Spoon Creek, adjoining the land of John Ward and 185 acres on the south side of Spoon Creek, “adjoining Collier.”

He was named in the will of his father written June 4, 1805 in Patrick County, Virginia as the recipient of “5 shillings.” He was listed in the probate procedure in the May 1806 term of the Patrick County Court.

“David Gowin” was listed as the head of a household in the 1810 census of Wythe County, according to “Index to 1810 Virginia Census” by Madeline W. Crickard. About 1811 he moved again to Grainger County, Tennessee “where he had a brother, Laban Goin,” according to his pension application.

The 1820 census of Grainger County [and all but 10 counties of Tennessee] was destroyed by a fire in Washington, D.C. and no copy remains. “David S. Going, free negro” appeared in the 1821 tax list of Grainger County and paid a tax on “one free poll.” “David Goan” reappeared in the 1830 census of Grainger County, page 359, heading a household of “free col-ored persons.”

It is believed that David Smith Going removed about 1832 to Hamilton County, Tennessee to join his “brother, Laban Goins,” who had preceded him there in 1829. In 1832, he ap-plied for his pension at age 76 in Hamilton County and filed the following declaration:

“David Goins, a resident of Hamilton County and State of Tennessee, aged 76 years doth appear in open court before the Worshipful Justices of the Court of Pleas & Quarter Sessions of Hamilton County now sitting and on his oath make the following Declaration:

That he entered the service of the United States as a volunteer under Capt. Rogers in Halifax County, State of Virginia and was mustered into service under Col. William Terry at Halifax Courthouse, to Williamsburg, from Williamsburg to Norfolk, and from Norfolk to Portsmouth where he was discharged, having served three months.

“Six or eight months after his return home, he was drafted, according to his memory under Capt. Bates and joined the regiment at Bibb’s Ferry under Maj. Jones. He was marched from there to Cabbin Point below Petersburg, Virginia and was stationed there until his term of service expired, having served three months this tour and was discharged by Capt. Bates and returned home.

About two years after the last mentioned service, this ap-plicant was again drafted, according to his memory under Capt. Pregmore in Halifax County. They marched to join Gen. Washington’s army at Portsmouth where this applicant remained about two months before the surrender of Corn Wallis. About three days afterward, his term of service ex-pired, and he was discharged by Capt. Pregmore and returned home, having served three months this tour.

Four or five years after the termination of the Revolutionary War [October 1781], he moved from Halifax County to Grayson County, Virginia where he resided three years. From there he moved to Wythe County, Virginia and resided there for 10 years. From there he moved to Grainger County and resided there for 14 years. From there he moved to Hamilton County, Tennessee and has resided here twelve months the last day of this month and still resides here.”

“David Goins, age 76” was listed as Revolutionary War Pensioner S3406 in Hamilton County in 1834, according to “Twenty Four Hundred Tennessee Pensioners” by Zella Armstrong.

David Smith Going died in February 26, 1840 in Hamilton County, “his pension then being paid to his children” [unnamed], according to pension records. Children born to David Smith Going are unknown, however many Going/Goins individuals have lived in Hamilton and adjoining Rhea County..

E. Raymond Evans, an anthropologist, made a study of the mysterious Melungeons of Hamilton and Rhea Counties, Tennessee and wrote a report of his findings in “Tennessee An-thropologist,” Spring 1979. He wrote:

“Located approximately 30 miles north of Chattanooga, the community of Graysville, Tennessee contains one of the most stable Melungeon settlements in the state. Field work in the community conducted in conjunction with archival research demonstrates that the Melungeons, who now compose more than half of the local population, came from Hamilton County during the latter half of the nineteenth century.

Census records and other archival sources indicate that prior to coming to Hamilton County they had lived in Virginia and North Carolina. In Graysville, the Melungeons strongly deny a black heritage and explain their genetic difference by claiming to have had Cherokee grandmothers.

Many of the local whites also claim Cherokee ancestry and appear to accept the Melungeon claim. The racist discrimination common in Hancock County and in most other Melungeon communities is absent in Graysville. Here, the Melungeons interact in all phases of community life, and exogamy with local whites is a common practice. The group is called after the most common surname present–Goins–and the term ‘Melungeon’ is not used by the people or by their neighbors.

Recent field observations have led to the conclusion that the culture and social activities of the Graysville Melungeons differs in no way from that of any small Southern Appalachian community.

No people in Tennessee have been subjected to more romantic speculation than have the soÄcalled ‘Melungeons.’ These darkÄskinned people, living in a white world, have attempted to explain their color by saying they were of Portuguese descent, according to Swan Burnett in 1889 in ‘The American Anthropologist. Popular writers, including Thurston L. Willis in ‘The Chesapiean’ in 1941 and Leo Zuber in ‘The Melun-geons’ in 1941, have elaborated on this theme.

The purpose of this paper is not to perpetuate the popular myth of an exotic Melungeon ‘race,’ but rather to provide an ethnographic description of the cultural background and contemporary life of the Graysville Melungeons. The term ‘Melungeon’ is used solely for the purpose of defining the study group and is not intended as a negative reflection on the ethnic background of any member of the community. The data presented herein were obtained by the author during an extended study of the community from November 1976 through August 1977, and are based on personal observations, 83 informal interviews with 36 residents of the community and surrounding areas, and a review of available documentary and published materials.

The most common surname among the Graysville Melungeons is Goins, being so prevalent that the whites in the surrounding area call all the Graysville Melungeons ‘Goinses,’ rather than Melungeons. In fact, the term ‘Melungeon’ is rarely used anywhere in lower East Tennessee. The Goins families are so well known in Rhea County that any dark skinned person, not regarded as a black, is said to ‘look like a Goins.’”

From GRF Newsletter July 1998:

David Smith Goins, Melungeon Ended the War at Yorktown

Prepared from research developed
By Louise Goins Richardson
2207 E. Lake Street, Paragould, AR, 72450, 501/239-4763

David Smith Goins, probably a Melungeon, was born in Hanover
County, Virginia November 21, 1757, according to his Revo-
lutionary War pension application abstracted in “Tennessee
Heroes of the Revolution” by Zella Armstrong.

During his life he was sometimes enumerated as “white” and
sometimes as “free colored.” Apparently his family removed to
Halifax County, Virginia prior to the Revolution. He enlisted
there in a militia company commanded by “Capt. Rogers,” ac-
cording to his pension application dated February 27, 1834:

“David Goins, a resident of Hamilton County and State
of Tennessee, aged 76 years doth appear in open court
before the Worshipful Justices of the Court of Pleas &
Quarter Sessions of Hamilton County now sitting and on
his oath make the following Declaration:

That he entered the service of the United States as a vol-
unteer under Capt. Rogers in Halifax County, State of
Virginia and was mustered into service under Col.
William Terry at Halifax Courthouse, to Williamsburg,
from Williamsburg to Norfolk, and from Norfolk to
Portsmouth where he was discharged, having served
three months.

“Six or eight months after his return home, he was
drafted, according to his memory under Capt. Bates and
joined the regiment at Bibb’s Ferry under Maj. Jones.
He was marched from there to Cabbin Point below
Petersburg, Virginia and was stationed there until his
term of service expired, having served three months this
tour and was discharged by Capt. Bates and returned
home.

About two years after the last mentioned service, this ap-
plicant was again drafted, according to his memory un-
der Capt. Pregmore in Halifax County. They marched
to join Gen. Washington’s army at Portsmouth where
this applicant remained about two months before the
surrender of Corn Wallis. About three days afterward,
his term of service expired, and he was discharged by
Capt. Pregmore and returned home, having served three
months this tour.

Four or five years after the termination of the
Revolutionary War [October 1781], he moved from
Halifax County to Grayson County, Virginia where he
resided three years. From there he moved to Wythe
County, Virginia and resided there for 10 years. From
there he moved to Grainger County and resided there for
14 years. From there he moved to Hamilton County,
Tennessee and has resided here twelve months the last
day of this month and still resides here.”

Apparently David Smith Goins was married shortly after his return
home. “David Going” was listed in the state census of Virginia
of 1782 as the head of a household of two people in Halifax
County, according to “Heads of Households, Virginia, 1790,”
page 24. He reappeared in the 1785 state census of Halifax
County as the head of a household of “four white souls,” ac-
cording to the same volume. In 1787 in Halifax County “David
Gowin” rendered for taxes “two horses and five head of cattle.”
About 1788 he removed to Grayson County and from there he
relocated in adjoining Wythe County about 1791.

“David Gowin” was listed as the head of a household in the
1810 census of Wythe County, according to “Index to 1810
Virginia Census” by Madeline W. Crickard. About 1811 he
moved again to Grainger County “where he had a brother, La-
ban Goin,” according to his pension application.

The 1820 census of Grainger County [and all but 10 counties of
Tennessee] was destroyed by a fire in Washington, and no copy
remains. “David S. Going, free negro” appeared in the 1821
tax list of Grainger County and paid a tax on “one free poll.”
“David Goan” reappeared in the 1830 census of Grainger
County, page 359, heading a household of “free colored per-
sons.”

“David Goins, age 76” was listed as Revolutionary War Pen-
sioner S3406 in Hamilton County in 1834, according to
“Twenty Four Hundred Tennessee Pensioners” by Zella
Armstrong.

David Smith Goins died in 1840 in Hamilton County, “his pension
then being paid to his children” [unnamed], according to pen-
sion records. He did not appear in the 1840 census of Hamilton
County. Children born to David Smith Goins are unknown.

Laban Goins, identified as a younger brother of David Smith Goins,
was born in 1764 in Virginia, probably Hanover County. He
lived in Halifax County during the Revolutionary War, but was
too young to serve in the militia with his brother. About 1800
Laban Goins removed, apparently with several families of rela-
tives, to Grainger County, Tennessee. The 1805 tax list of
Grainger County included “Laborn Going, Claborn Goins,
Daniel Going, Caleb Going, James Goins and John Goins. A
second version of the “Taxable Inhabitants for the Year
1805” listed “Laban Going, Claiborne Going, Daniel Goin,
Shadrack Goin, James Going, John Going and Calib Going.”

Although the spelling varies from the first list to the second, it
is obvious that the two lists refer to the same individuals. Of
the second group only Shadrack Goin does not appear in the
first list. “Laborn Going” was rendered as “one free poll, ne-
gro” in the tax list.

Laban Goins preceded his brother in the move to Hamilton
County. He appeared in the 1830 census of that county, page
75, as the head of a “free colored” household. The enumerator
obviously had no way to properly record a Melungeon house-
hold. Although he did not record the “free colored”
individuals, he did enumerate in the household “one white fe-
male, 5-10” and “one white female, 0-5.”

On February 7, 1834 Laban Goins submitted his affidavit to the
Hamilton County Court attesting to his brother’s Revolutionary
War service.

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