Sections in this issue:
1) David Smith Going Fought in Battle of Yorktown;
2) Dear Cousins;
3) Elder Hugh Sidney Gowans Was Convicted of Trigamy in Utah;
All Gowen Manuscript Pages and Newsletters: https://goyengoinggowengoyneandgone.com/gowen-research-foundation-pages-and-info/
GOWEN RESEARCH FOUNDATION NEWSLETTER
Volume 8, No. 4 December 1990
1) David Smith Going Fought in Battle of Yorktown
David Smith Going, son of Shadrach Going and regarded as a Melungeon, was born in Hanover County, Virginia November 21, 1757, according to his Revolutionary War pension ap-plication abstracted in “Tennessee Heroes of the Revolution” by Zella Armstrong.
Apparently he was the only one of 16 children with a middle name. It was not only unusual in colonial times for a child to have a middle name, but an old English law made it illegal. “Harpers Magazine,” in a 1900 edition, commented:
“Middle names were once illegal in England. Old English law was definite as to the naming of children, and according to Sir Edward Coke’s law commentary, ‘a man cannot have two names of baptism,’ and ‘on bills of sale, ‘that purchaser be named by the name of his baptism and his surname.’ Royal personages were always allowed to have more than one given name, but as late as 1600, it was said there were only four persons in all England who had two given names. In 1620, when the Mayflower sailed for America, not a man or a woman aboard had a middle name.”
David Smith Going was perhaps a namesake of an older family member or family friend, and researchers should investigate any Smith individuals that were associated with the Going family in Hanover County. By 1765, Shadrach Going had removed to Halifax County, on the south side of Virginia, where other family members lived. An older “David Going of Halifax County” bought 270 acres for oe55 from Joseph Tate of Rowan County, North Carolina, according to Halifax County Deed Book 1759-1767, page 440. “David Goan” in 1770 received land in Pittsylvania County which had been created from Halifax County in 1766.
At about age 19, David Smith Going was enlisted in a Halifax County militia company “under “Capt. Rogers” for 90-days service, according to his pension application. After returning home, he was drafted into another militia company “commanded by Capt. Bates” for another three months.
In the summer of 1781, he was again drafted “under Capt. Pregmore” and marched to Portsmouth, Virginia to join the troops of Gen. George Washington. His company was part of the 16,000 men which composed the American and French forces engaged in the Battle of Yorktown. The British force of 7,000 was quickly surrounded, and after a two-day battle, Lord Cornwallis surrendered his entire command, ending the Revolutionary War. The panorama of the battle and of the surrender ceremony must have left an indelible impression upon 23-year-old David Smith Going.
Apparently, shortly after his return home, he was married, wife’s name unknown. “David Going” was listed in the state census of Virginia of 1782 as the head of a household of two people in Halifax County. He reappeared in the 1785 state census of Halifax County as the head of a household of “four white souls,” according to the same volume. During his life-time, he was sometimes enumerated as “white” and sometimes as “free colored.”
The clerk who took the pension affidavit of David Smith Going recorded:
“Four or five years after the termination of the Revolutionary War [October 1781], he moved from Halifax County to Grayson County, Virginia where he resided three years. From there he moved to Wythe County, Virginia and resided there for 10 years.”
Either the 76-year veteran did not correctly remember, or the clerk misunderstood the chronology, because some errors crept into the affidavit. In 1787, when “David Gowin” rendered for taxes “two horses and five head of cattle,” he was still in Halifax County. He probably did not live in Grayson County next because it was not created until 1792. His residency in Wythe County, probably came first.
On March 30, 1789, “David Gowin” was granted 94 acres in Wythe County on Spoon Creek, adjoining the land of John Ward and 185 acres on the south side of Spoon Creek, “adjoining Collier.”
He was named in the will of his father written June 4, 1805 in Patrick County, Virginia as the recipient of “5 shillings.” He was listed in the probate procedure in the May 1806 term of the Patrick County Court.
“David Gowin” was listed as the head of a household in the 1810 census of Wythe County, according to “Index to 1810 Virginia Census” by Madeline W. Crickard. About 1811 he moved again to Grainger County, Tennessee “where he had a brother, Laban Goin,” according to his pension application.
The 1820 census of Grainger County [and all but 10 counties of Tennessee] was destroyed by a fire in Washington, D.C. and no copy remains. “David S. Going, free negro” appeared in the 1821 tax list of Grainger County and paid a tax on “one free poll.” “David Goan” reappeared in the 1830 census of Grainger County, page 359, heading a household of “free col-ored persons.”
It is believed that David Smith Going removed about 1832 to Hamilton County, Tennessee to join his “brother, Laban Goins,” who had preceded him there in 1829. In 1832, he ap-plied for his pension at age 76 in Hamilton County and filed the following declaration:
“David Goins, a resident of Hamilton County and State of Tennessee, aged 76 years doth appear in open court before the Worshipful Justices of the Court of Pleas & Quarter Sessions of Hamilton County now sitting and on his oath make the following Declaration:
That he entered the service of the United States as a volunteer under Capt. Rogers in Halifax County, State of Virginia and was mustered into service under Col. William Terry at Halifax Courthouse, to Williamsburg, from Williamsburg to Norfolk, and from Norfolk to Portsmouth where he was discharged, having served three months.
“Six or eight months after his return home, he was drafted, according to his memory under Capt. Bates and joined the regiment at Bibb’s Ferry under Maj. Jones. He was marched from there to Cabbin Point below Petersburg, Virginia and was stationed there until his term of service expired, having served three months this tour and was discharged by Capt. Bates and returned home.
About two years after the last mentioned service, this ap-plicant was again drafted, according to his memory under Capt. Pregmore in Halifax County. They marched to join Gen. Washington’s army at Portsmouth where this applicant remained about two months before the surrender of Corn Wallis. About three days afterward, his term of service ex-pired, and he was discharged by Capt. Pregmore and returned home, having served three months this tour.
Four or five years after the termination of the Revolutionary War [October 1781], he moved from Halifax County to Grayson County, Virginia where he resided three years. From there he moved to Wythe County, Virginia and resided there for 10 years. From there he moved to Grainger County and resided there for 14 years. From there he moved to Hamilton County, Tennessee and has resided here twelve months the last day of this month and still resides here.”
“David Goins, age 76” was listed as Revolutionary War Pensioner S3406 in Hamilton County in 1834, according to “Twenty Four Hundred Tennessee Pensioners” by Zella Armstrong.
David Smith Going died in February 26, 1840 in Hamilton County, “his pension then being paid to his children” [unnamed], according to pension records. Children born to David Smith Going are unknown, however many Going/Goins individuals have lived in Hamilton and adjoining Rhea County..
E. Raymond Evans, an anthropologist, made a study of the mysterious Melungeons of Hamilton and Rhea Counties, Tennessee and wrote a report of his findings in “Tennessee An-thropologist,” Spring 1979. He wrote:
“Located approximately 30 miles north of Chattanooga, the community of Graysville, Tennessee contains one of the most stable Melungeon settlements in the state. Field work in the community conducted in conjunction with archival research demonstrates that the Melungeons, who now compose more than half of the local population, came from Hamilton County during the latter half of the nineteenth century.
Census records and other archival sources indicate that prior to coming to Hamilton County they had lived in Virginia and North Carolina. In Graysville, the Melungeons strongly deny a black heritage and explain their genetic difference by claiming to have had Cherokee grandmothers.
Many of the local whites also claim Cherokee ancestry and appear to accept the Melungeon claim. The racist discrimination common in Hancock County and in most other Melungeon communities is absent in Graysville. Here, the Melungeons interact in all phases of community life, and exogamy with local whites is a common practice. The group is called after the most common surname present–Goins–and the term ‘Melungeon’ is not used by the people or by their neighbors.
Recent field observations have led to the conclusion that the culture and social activities of the Graysville Melungeons differs in no way from that of any small Southern Appalachian community.
No people in Tennessee have been subjected to more romantic speculation than have the soÄcalled ‘Melungeons.’ These darkÄskinned people, living in a white world, have attempted to explain their color by saying they were of Portuguese descent, according to Swan Burnett in 1889 in ‘The American Anthropologist. Popular writers, including Thurston L. Willis in ‘The Chesapiean’ in 1941 and Leo Zuber in ‘The Melun-geons’ in 1941, have elaborated on this theme.
The purpose of this paper is not to perpetuate the popular myth of an exotic Melungeon ‘race,’ but rather to provide an ethnographic description of the cultural background and contemporary life of the Graysville Melungeons. The term ‘Melungeon’ is used solely for the purpose of defining the study group and is not intended as a negative reflection on the ethnic background of any member of the community. The data presented herein were obtained by the author during an extended study of the community from November 1976 through August 1977, and are based on personal observations, 83 informal interviews with 36 residents of the community and surrounding areas, and a review of available documentary and published materials.
The most common surname among the Graysville Melungeons is Goins, being so prevalent that the whites in the surrounding area call all the Graysville Melungeons ‘Goinses,’ rather than Melungeons. In fact, the term ‘Melungeon’ is rarely used anywhere in lower East Tennessee. The Goins families are so well known in Rhea County that any dark skinned person, not regarded as a black, is said to ‘look like a Goins.'”
2) Dear Cousins
Thank you for this wonderful Newsletter and Internet service which connects our entire clan and keeps the researchers inspired and informed. My membership for 1988 is enclosed. Nancy Lytwin, 4147 Kingshill Circle, Napierville, IL, 60565-9817
I thought you might be interested in two anecdotes about the Guynes name that I have encountered. In 1976, on a vacation to Bermuda, I came across a group of Scottish tourists in a local pub. I mentioned the name “Guynes,” and they responded, you mean “Guinness.” They were convinced that Guynes was an Americanized [southern-style] version of Guinness. In 1986, I hired a Cuban-American named “Gines” who pronounced her name: “ghee-nays.” She was not aware of any connection to “Guynes” or “Guinness.” Are either Gines or Guinness also a part of our study of the family lore?
Glad to have found you on the Internet. The check is in the mail for my Foundation membership. Roosevelt Jones, 3930 Kernstown Ct, Fairfax, VA, 22033-1425, roseyJ@webtv.net.
Our Guynes researchers generally hold that the surname “Guynes” was derived from “Goyne” or “Goynes,” rather than “Guinness.” Our Melungeon “Goins” were sometimes referred to as “guineas” in West Virginia, but never as “ghee-nays.”
We are very fortunate in the Foundation to now have the association of Anita Puckett, a linguistics scholar. It is through experts in this field who are willing to look at some of the interesting parallels between Native American languages and those of Arabic, Turkish and Hebrew, etc. In the end, it may not be of great value to the Melungeon story or to identi-fying our Melungeon ancestors, but it will open the doors to a better understanding of our Native American heritage for sure. Evelyn McKinley Orr, 8310 Emmet St, Omaha, NE, 68134, 402/571-3422, firstname.lastname@example.org
In my family it was said that we were descended from survivors of the “lost colony” that intermarried with the Pamunkey Indians to produce the Lumbee tribe beginning in 1580. When people talk about how long their ancestors have been in this country and ask me the same, I can only chuckle and reply, “Oh, they came here sometime around 1580.
My father’s ancestor always insisted that they were driven out of Ulster by the English, fled to Spain, joined the Spanish Army and was assigned to the Carolinas in the 1580s. My father’s family was “Tress,” pronounced “Trace.” I was told that my paternal grandfather assumed his wife’s surname after he killed a man in the boxing ring in Eastern Tennessee in the 1920s and fled to Oregon. If my legend helps at all, feel free to use it. Can anyone help me with my research? Michael Lowery, 1124 Upperline St, New Orleans, LA, 70115, email@example.com.
3) Elder Hugh Sidney Gowans Was Convicted of Trigamy in Utah
Hugh Sidney Gowans, a native of Scotland, was the subject of a biographical sketch which was published in “Latter-Day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia,” written by Andrew Jenson and published in 1901. The account read:
“Hugh Sydney Gowans, third president of the Tooele Stake of Zion, is the son of Robert Gowans and Grace McKay Gowans and was born February 23, 1832 in Perth, Perthshire, Scotland. While quite young his parents removed to the city of Aberdeen in the northeast part of Scotland, where he lived until he was about ten years of age.
Then he removed with them to the town of Arboath in Fosfor-shire, Scotland, in which place he first heard and received the gospel of Jesus Christ, as taught by the Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. He was baptized in his eighteenth year, August 1, 1840 by Elder Joseph Booth, in consequence of which he had to contend with much opposition from his parents and other relatives.
In the following July, in response to a call made by Elder James Marsden, president of the Edinburgh conference, for volunteers to go out and preach the gospel, Brother Gowans offered his service. He was accordingly ordained a priest and started from Dundee, in company with Robert Bain to labor in Fifeshire, under the direction of Elder John Duncan. After some six months he was called to go to the north part of Scot-land, where he travelled and preached in Stonehaven, Ab-erdeen, Banff, and other places.
In the meantime he was ordained an Elder. Having labored in the ministry for some eighteen months, he returned home and was appointed to preside over the Arbroath branch of the Dundee conference, which position he occupied until he emigrated to Utah with his wife and her father and mother in 1855. He sailed from Liverpool April 22, 1855 with a company of 581 saints, on board the ship “Samuel Curling.” He arrived safely in New York, the journey was continued via Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Atchison and Mormon Grove. He crossed the plains in Capt. Milo Andrus’ emigrant train, arrived in Salt Lake City October 24 in the same year.
He spent the following winter on the government Reservation in Rush Valley, Tooele County. In consequence of Indian hostilities, in the spring of 1856, he located in Tooele City, where he has resided ever since. He was ordained a Seventy in Salt Lake City under the hands of Joseph Young April 20, 1857 and set apart as one of the presidents of the 43rd quorum of Seventy at its organization in Tooele City, May 9, 1857.
He was appointed assessor and collector for Tooele County in 1865, and held the office for six years. In August of the same year he was elected mayor of Tooele City, in which office he was three times successively re-elected. May 16, 1868 he was elected adjutant of Company A, First Cavalry Battalion, Nau-voo Legion, and commissioned as such with the rank of first lieutenant by Gov. Durkee.
In 1872 he was called to go on a mission to Europe. He left Salt lake City October 25th, and sailed from New York November 6 on board the steamer “Minnesota” of the Guion Line, which arrived in Liverpool November 19. During this mission Elder Gowans presided successively in the Bedford, Durham and Newcastle and Manchester conferences, and was released to return home. As the leader of a company of emigrating saints he sailed from Liverpool on the steamship “Wyoming” May 12, 1875 and arrived in New York May 24th, and in Salt Lake City June 3.
On August 7, 1876 he was elected prosecuting attorney for Tooele County and on the 27th of September following he was elected chairman of the central and executive committees of the People’s Party in Tooele County, and took a prominent part in recovering the county from the Liberal rule.
At the organization of the Tooele Stake in June 1877 he was ordained a High Priest and set apart as a member of the High Council.
In August 1878 he was elected probate judge of Tooele County and re-elected to the same office in August 1880. At the quarterly conference of the Tooele Stake held in Grantsville in January, 1881, he was sustained as first coun-selor to Heber J. Grant, president of Tooele Stake.
In October 1882, he was sustained and set apart by Pres. John Taylor to preside over the Tooele Stake, succeeding Heber J. Grant, who was called to be one of the Twelve Apostles.
On July 16, 1885, he was arrested at his home in Tooele City on the charge of unlawful cohabitation with his wives. He was taken before Commissioner McKay in Salt Lake City and by him bound over in the sum of $1,500 to answer to the findings of the grand jury. On the 23rd of September he was arraigned to plead to three indictments for the same offense, being the first man in the Territory on whom Prosecuting Attorney W. H. Dickson and the grand jury commenced their illegal business of segregation, to all of which he pleaded not guilty and was placed under $3,000 bonds–$1,000 on each indictment.
On February 11, 1886 he was brought into court, but was only tried on one of the indictments under the plea of not guilty [the other two indictments were held over for future use], on the express condition that he would go on the witness stand and give evidence for the prosecution, which he did. No other witnesses were called. Judge Zane charged the jury, who found a verdict of guilty without leaving their seats.
At his request, sentence was deferred until the 26th, when, in answering the question in the negative, if he had any promises to make in regard to the future, he was sentenced to six months in the penitentiary and to pay a fine of $300 and costs–in all $520. The same day he was taken to the penitentiary, where he served out his sentence, less the deduction allowed by the Cooper Act. He also served 30 days in lieu of the fine, being discharged August 30, 1886.”
NOTE: The above information produced by the Gowen Research Foundation (GRF), and parts of the “Gowen Manuscript” they worked on producing. It has tons of information – much of it is correct, but be careful, some of it is not correct – so check their sources and logic. I’ve copied some of their information in the past researching my own family, only to find out there were some clear mistakes. So be sure to check the information to verify if it is right before citing the source and believing the person who researched it before was 100% correct. Most of the information I found there seems to be correct, but some is not.
Their website is: Internet: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~gowenrf
There does not seem to be anyone “manning the ship” at the Gowen Research Foundation, or Gowen Manuscript site any longer, and there is no way to contact anyone about any errors. The pages themselves don’t have a mechanism to leave a note for others to see any “new information” that you may have that shows when you find info that shows something is wrong, or when something has been verified.
Feel free to leave messages about any new information found, or errors in these pages, or information that has been verified that those who wrote these pages may not have known about.