2001 – 06 June Newsletter – GRF

Sections in this issue:

1) The Ancestry of William Goyne Of Wilkes/Warren County, Georgia;
2) Tim Hashaw email re Melungeons;
3) An Editorial . . . re series by Tim Hashaw on Melungeons.

All Gowen Manuscript Pages and Newsletters:   https://goyengoinggowengoyneandgone.com/gowen-research-foundation-pages-and-info/

Gowen Research Foundation
Electronic Newsletter

June 2001
Volume 4 No. 6

1)  The Ancestry of William Goyne Of Wilkes/Warren County, Georgia

Carroll Heard Goyne, Jr.
Betty Brantley Goyne
[25 April 2001]

WILLIAM GOYNE [4], who made his Will in Warren Co., Georgia in 1816 is this writer’s earliest documented ancestor. The purpose of this paper is to determine the ancestry of WILLIAM GOYNE [4] by documentation and, when that is lacking, by an evaluation of available evidence. In this paper we have spelled the name as it appears in a specific record. On other occasions we have used a generic spelling of ‘GOING.’ The number in brackets following a name, e.g. [4], identifies the generation of that person descending from the immigrant ancestor.


The GOYNE name is probably Iberian Celtic, having come to the British Isles from the Iberian Peninsula at some early time. Indeed, that is the tradition of some GOYNEs in England. Others hold that the name has its origins in the Cymric [Welsh] language, a language similar to Iberian Celtic. The name means WHITE in the original language, probably in reference to a person’s complexion. The name written in ancient Iberian Celtic Ogam has been found in a stone inscription. When the ‘sound’ of the Ogam letter-forms is converted into Latin letters they become: G-UI-N. (Book of Leinster, Irish Academy, Dublin) These letters further evolved into G-W-N, or G-Y-N. When vowels are added, the name takes on a variety of spellings. [The ‘Rosetta Stone’ of Celtic Ogam is contained in the Book of Ballymote, housed in the library of the Irish Academy, Dublin.]

The name WHITE in Cymric is spelled GWYN/GWYNE/ GWYNN/GWYNNE. (Charles Wareing Bardsley, M.A., A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames, Baltimore: Gen. Pub. Co., 1980 (London: 1901)) The name is said to date to “high antiquity” in Wales, probably dating to the Roman period. (Thomas Nicholas,M.A., Ph. D, F.G.S., etc., Annals and Antiquities of The Counties and County Families of Wales, Vol. 1, London: 1991 (1872, 1875))

Since W and Y are semi-vowels in both Iberian Celtic and Cymric, one spelling is a variant of the other. An example of semi-vowel to vowel transition may be seen in the name Llwyd to Lloyd. This transition is documented in History of Wale, by Caradoc of Llancarvan; translated into English by Dr. Powell. Caradoc lived until the year ca. 1157. Dr. Powell added to Caradoc’s original work, and published it in the English language in 1584.

In Stirlingshire, Scotland the westernmost peak of the Campsie Fells is named DUMGOYNE [Fort Goyne] HILL. “As the name suggests, there was once an Iron Age fort on the top.” (Discover Scotland, The Sunday Mail, p. 678) The Iron Age reached the British Isles about the time of Christ.

An interesting document in Britain confirms the derivation of the GOYNE name. After World War II, when Arthur William Tedder, GCB, Marshal of the Royal Air Force, was knighted, he took the title “Tedder of Glen Guin; Guin is now Goyne.” (Provided by James N. Scott of Glasgow, Scotland.)


The GOYNE name appears in some of the oldest surviving parish records in England, dating to the 14th century. While the name is found in various parts of the British Isles, it is clustered in Cornwall from an early time. (Provided by Robert Goyen of Victoria, Australia.)

12 Apr. 1397. JOHN GOWYN the elder, and JOHN GOYEN the younger of Fovent. Quit claim of all lands etc in Westmerton and Wodehouse within the parish of Eblesborne Wake. Margaret Jove late his wife. Dated West Merton 12 Apr 20 Richard II.

3 Oct 1422. To Alexander of de Ferentines of the fellowship of Albertini dwelling in the City of London. Licence to make a letter of exchange for 5 marks payable in foreign parts to Patrick Brown chaplain and 40s to WILLIAM GOYNE, provided he send no gold or silver over sea in the lump nor money by colour of this command (Calendar of Close Rolls, Henry IV 1422-1429, p. 447)

1429-36. William, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, Humphrey, Earl of Stafford, also Hugh Ardeswyk and Thomas Arblaster, Knight of the Shire for the County of Stafford. Commissioners to receive the oath of the following: THOMAS GOYNE, Esquire. (Calendar of Patient Rolls Henry VI 1429-1436, Stafford, p. 309)

17 Jan 1452. Letters of denization for JOHN GOYNE, born in parts of the land of Luque, and the heirs of his body, and for RICHARD his son, a bastard, and his heirs. By p.s. etc and for 4 marks paid in the hanaper. (Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-61, Westminster)
[Luque is located in southern Spain.]

3 April 1542. Surrey, THOMAS GOYNE. Child of JOHN & JONE.

7 Aug. 1597. WILLIAM GOYEN, Knight, buried.

1641. PETER GOYNE, St. Kecerne. Declared non-Catholic.

Edna Reynolds, of Kent, England, whose mother was a GOYNE of Morval, Cornwall, wrote the following to this writer in 1996.

“My mother always said that her family came from the Spanish smugglers and some must have stayed having met girls they fancied. Certainly their colouring suggests it could be right.”

What a surprise to learn that some present-day GOYNEs in Cornwall have olive skin.

It should be noted that there were no fewer than 30 men with a ‘GOING-sounding’ surname who were immigrants to Maryland, South Carolina and Virginia prior to 1700. The earliest of record was WILLIAM GAYNE, who was recorded as follows.

20 Jan.-7 Feb. 1624/5, Muster Roles of Virginia.
Elizabeth Cittie.
WILLIAM GAYNE and Robert Newman, their Musters.
WILLIAM GAYNE, age 36, in the Bona Nova, 1620.
(John Camden Hotten, Muster Rolls of Settlers in Virginia, 1624. The Original Lists of Persons of Quality, 1600-1700. Reprinted from 2nd Edition 1880, Baltimore: Gen. Pub. Co., 1962)

The first person for which there is the slightest bit of evidence for being the progenitor of this line of ‘GOINGs’ is THOMAS [1] of Westmoreland/Stafford Co., Virginia. This possible connection is found in the following record.

3 Aug. 1719, Stafford Co., Evan Thomas & John Todd both of Stafford Co., 1215 acres in Stafford Co. on Four Mile Creek adjacent to Mr. Robert Alexander. Land formerly surveyed for THOMAS, JOHN, WILLIAM & JAMES GOINS. Surveyed by Mr. Thomas Hooper. Grant Book 5, p. 212. (Gertrude Entz Gray, Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants, 1694-1742, Baltimore: Gen. Pub. Co., 1987, p. 69)

Four Mile Creek enters the Potomac River just south of Ronald Reagan Airport [Washington National Airport]. Robert Alexander was the grandson of John Alexander, who originally patented his land in 1664. Robert Alexander’s sons, Gerard and John, were the first Alexanders to actually reside on the Four Mile Creek property. John Alexander lived at Boyd’s Hole in King George Co. [formed from Richmond and Westmoreland Cos.in 1720], opposite Maryland Point.

Since THOMAS ‘GOING’s [1] name appeared in Westmoreland and Stafford Co. records several years before the other three, we have assumed that THOMAS [1] was the father of the others. With the further assumption that THOMAS [1] was an immigrant, we have looked for records that might identify him.

6 Aug. 1635. THOMAS GOING, age 18, was transported to Virginia in the Globe of London. (Michael Tepper, ed., Passengers to America, Baltimore: Gen. Pub. Co., 1977)

17 July 1648, Isle of Wight Co., Mr. George Hardy, 500 acres. Lying on the east side of Lawnes Creek, extending to the main river along land reputed THOMAS GAYNES, along the great river to a creek dividing same from land of Alice Bennett. (Nell Marion Nugent, Cavaliers & Pioneers, Abstracts of Va. Land Patents & Grants, 1623-1666, p. 177)

1652. THO. GAYNE transported by Micho George, Tho. Taberer and Humphry Clarke, ____ Co. (George Cabel Greer, Early Virginia Immigrants, 1623-1666, Baltimore: Gen. Pub. Co., 1982)

7 Aug. 1657. Persons to be transported from London to Virginia by the Globe of London, Mr.Jeremy Blackman, after examination by the Minister of Gravesend: THOMAS GOWEN, 18. (Peter Wilson Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607-1660, Baltimore: Gen. Pub. Co., 1988)

1671, THOMAS GOING transported to Maryland. (Liber 16, Folio 135, in Gust Skordas, ed., The Early Settlers of Maryland, Baltimore: Gen. Pub. Co., 1986 [1968])

Stafford Co., Virginia was formed from Westmoreland Co. in 1664.

Following is the earliest record of the THOMAS ‘GOING’ [1] who may be the progenitor of this line.

7 Apr. 1693, Westmoreland Co. At Court: Abraham Smith vs. THOMAS GOEN. Defamation. Withdrawn in person. (John Frederick Dorman, Westmoreland Co., Virginia Order Book 1690-1698, Part 2, 1962, p. 34)

THOMAS ‘GOING’s [1] name appeared in the records of Westmoreland & Stafford Cos. until 8 December 1708, when he was granted 653 acres of land on “Potowmack” River in Stafford Co. The Warrant was dated 8 June 1707. The land was located on Lower Spout Run near Ousley’s land. (Book 3, p. 204 in Gray, op cit, p. 39) There is no evidence that THOMAS actually lived on this land.

The above land is the same as that reported a bit differently in the following record.

THOMAS GOING patented 653 acres westerly from the mouth of Spout Run in 1703. (Book 3, p. 204 in Bessie Wilmarth Gahn, Colonial Days, Rock Creek to the Falls, 1940)

Spout Run enters the Potomac River west of today’s Interstate 66, and opposite the southwest corner of Georgetown University. “Ousley’s land” refers to a grant of 640 acres in 1696 to Thomas Ousley. This land is along the Potomac River extending easterly from the mouth of Spout Run.

THOMAS ‘GOING’s [1] name appeared in Stafford Co., Virginia records after 1708, but we have found no evidence to indicate that he was alive after that date.

As previously noted, the 3 August 1719 deed suggests that THOMAS ‘GOING’ [1] had three sons: JOHN [2], WILLIAM [2] and JAMES [2]. These presumed sons of THOMAS [1] served in the Stafford Co. Militia, Company of Dragoons, in 1701/02. (Lloyd DeWitt Bockstruck, Virginia’s Colonial Soldiers, Baltimore: Gen. Pub. Co., 1988) This record indicates that these sons of THOMAS [1] were born before 1685. This writer descends from WILLIAM [2].

23 November 1714 is the date of WILLIAM GOING’s [2] first grant in Stafford Co. This tract is on the “Main Run of Accotink Creek.” (A. Evans Wynn, Southern Lineages: Records of Thirteen Families, Brown Pub. Co., 1940, p. 320) Other grants are listed as follows.

23 Nov. 1714, WILLIAM GOING [2] & Evan Thomas of Stafford Co. Warrant: 10 September 1713. Surveyed by Mr. Thomas Hooper, 124 acres on Jonathan’s Creek of Occaquan River in Stafford Co. adjacent road to Dogue Island Neck, Giles Travers, Giles Tillett. Grant Book 5, p. 8. (Gertrude Entz Gray, Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants 1694-1742, Baltimore: Gen. Pub. Co., 1987, p. 54)

28 Feb. 1719, WILLIAM GOING [2] of Stafford Co., 180 acres on main run of Accotink Creek in Stafford Co. on Goins or Turkey Branch. Surveyed by Mr. Thomas Hooper. Grant Book 5, p. 70. (Gray, op cit, p. 70)

Apparently, WILLIAM ‘GOING’ [2] died in Stafford Co., Virginia between 12 November 1725 and 8 March 1726.

8 March 1726, Stafford Co. Lease of AMBROSE GOWING [3] to KATHRINE GOWING, widow. George Mason, Joseph Haines, Brent Hudnall, wits.”Proprietors of the Northern Neck of Va. unto WILLIAM GOWING [2], father of the said AMBROSE GOWING [3], by patent bearing date 12th Nov. 1725.” Deed Book 1, recorded p. 358; release p. 354. (A. Evans Wynn, Records of Thirteen Families, Brown Pub. Co., 1940, p. 320)

AMBROSE ‘GOING’ [3] was the eldest son and heir of WILLIAM ‘GOING’ [2].

Prince William Co., Virginia was formed from Stafford Co. in 1727.

On an undetermined date between 8 March 1726 and 23 October 1738, CATHERINE ‘GOING’, the widow of WILLIAM ‘GOING’ [2], married a Mr. Patterson.

On 23 October 1738, in Brunswick Co., Virginia, Thomas Stroud’s Will was witnessed by CORNELIUS KEITH [2], Mary (x) King, and CATHERINE (x) PATTERSON. (Will Book 2, p. 1) Since JOHN [3] and MARY (Keith) ‘GOING’ had not yet moved to Brunswick Co., this suggests that CATHERINE PATTERSON [widow of WILLIAM ‘GOING’ [2]] was visiting with, and related to either CORNELIUS KEITH [2] or his wife ELIZABETH JOHNSON.

CATHERINE PATTERSON’s will was dated 21 May 1739, in Pr. William Co., Virginia. CATHERINE identified her children: son ALEXANDER GOING [3], daughter SUSANNAH GOING [3], and son JOHN GOING [3], who was named Executor. (John Frederick Dorman, Prince William Co., VA Will Book C, 1734-1744, Wash. DC, 1956. pp. 180-199.) This indicates that JOHN [3] was age 21 or older, or born before 1718. Son AMBROSE ‘GOING’ [3] was not mentioned.

This writer descends from JOHN ‘GOING’ [3].

On 23 July 1739, CATHERINE PATTERSON’s Will was presented to the Pr. William Co., Virginia Court by JOHN GOING [3], sole executor. JOHN GOING [3] stated that CATHERINE’s husband was yet living. (Dorman, op cit)

JOHN ‘GOING’ [3] was married to MARY KEITH, daughter of CORNELIUS KEITH [1]. This relationship is confirmed in Fairfax Co., Virginia Deed Book B, p. 32. (A. Evans Wynn, Southern Lineages: Records of Thirteen Families, Brown Pub. Co., 1940, p. 322)


This excursus is presented to resolve a question concerning the spelling of the KEITH name. Spelling the name with a T suggests Scottish ancestry, while spelling it with an F suggests Irish ancestry. The spellings used herein were taken from source documents.

William Byrd [2] visited CORNELIUS KEITH [2] on 16 November 1728, on his return from surveying the dividing line between North Carolina and Virginia. Evidently, CORNELIUS [2] had recently arrived at this site, as his house did not have a roof at the time of Byrd’s visit. Byrd wrote that CORNELIUS KEITH [2] had a wife and six small children. They lived on Major Robert Mumford’s land near the Roanoke River, in Brunswick Co., Virginia. Byrd and some of his party crossed the Roanoke River by boat at a point about one mile below the Horse Ford of the Trading Path. Thus, CORNELIUS [2] lived on the north side of the Roanoke River, about one mile below the Trading Path, and a short distance above the North Carolina line. In his History of the Dividing Line betwixt Virginia and North Carolina Line, and in his The Secret History of the Dividing Line, William Byrd [2] spelled the name KEITH. (William K. Boyd, William Byrd’s Histories of the Dividing Line, Raleigh, The North Carolina Historical Commission, 1929)

At a later date, Robert Hicks Sr. gave CORNELIUS KEITH [2] 100 acres of land on the north side of Roanoke River below the Horse Ford of the Trading Path. (Brunswick Co., Virginia Deed Bk. 1, p. 125)

CORNELIUS KEITH [2] operated a ferry across the Roanoke River from this location, which was close to where he formerly lived on Major Mumford’s land.

In May 1739, CORNELIUS KEITH [2] appeared before the Court of Brunswick Co., Virginia and made oath that “…he had never made use of his Importation Right and this is the first time, and that is now thirty years ago since his importation, which is ordered to be certified.” (Brunswick Co., Virginia Order Book 1, p. 241)

In her book Southern Lineages, A. Evans Wynn cited a document in Brunswick Co., Virginia that referred to CORNELIUS KEITH [2] as ‘KEIFFE.’ JACK GOINS, of Rogersville, Tennessee, visited Brunswick Co. and viewed the document in question. JACK informed this writer that the name on the document in question is spelled “KEITH.” Evidently, Mrs. Wynn’s editor misread her handwriting.

The following is contained in The Roster of Texas Daughters Revolutionary Ancestors, 1976, p. 1189:

“CORNELIUS KEITH [3], born 1743 in Brunswick Co., Virginia; died 13 June 1820 in Pickens Co., South Carolina. Married MARY LAFFOON in 1769 in Rockingham Co., NC, and died in Pickens Co., South Carolina on 13 Feb. 1846.”

The above record connects the KEITHs buried in Oolenoy Baptist Church Cemetery [see below] with the Brunswick Co., Virginia KEITHs.

Grave markers in Oolenoy Baptist Church Cemetery in Pickens Co., South Carolina appear to be those of CORNELIUS KEITH [2] and several members of his family. If so, and considering the foregoing records, CORNELIUS KEITH [2] came to America as a child. This would explain why he claimed Importation Rights in the Brunswick Co., Virginia Court. His grave marker indicates that he married a second time.

“CORNELIUS KEITH [2], born 1715, Loch Lomond, Scotland, died 1808. Of Royal Lineage. Coat of Arms 1715 to 1808, dating from 1010 AC. Original pioneer of Oolenoy Settlement started about 1743. Married JUDA THOMPSON, reared 12 children: one son was Col. CORNELIUS KEITH, Revolutionary War hero whose wife was MARY LAFOONE.”

In our opinion, this stone was placed long after CORNELIUS KEITH [2] died, and probably after his son CORNELIUS [3] died in 1820. Certainly, CORNELIUS [3] knew his highest rank was sergeant, not colonel. [See below]

“CORNELIUS KEITH SR [3], born 1743, died Jun. 13, 1820”

[On 15 June 1778, CORNELIUS KEITH [3] enlisted in the 5th SC Regiment and became a corporal on 28 Dec. 1778. He served as a sergeant under Capt. James Hogan, and served 39 days in the militia during 1782. One source indicates he served in the 4th SC Regiment. (Bobby Gilmer Moss, Roster of SC Patriots in the American Revolution, 1983, p. 521)]

“MARY KEITH w/o CORNELIUS KEITH SR [3], born 1749, died Feb. 13, 1846”


Returning to JOHN [3], son of WILLIAM ‘GOING’ [2] of Stafford Co., Virginia, we find the following records of interest.

Fairfax Co., Virginia was formed from Prince William and Loudoun Cos. in 1742.

Two deeds mark the departure of JOHN [3] and MARY (Keith) ‘GOING’ from Fairfax Co., Virginia. Both deeds are recorded in Fairfax Co. Deed Book B.

9 June 1746, JOHN GOING [3] and MARY, his wife, of Truro Parish, Fairfax Co., to Edward Kirkland, 268 acres on north side Occoquan Run, granted Richard Kirkland, deceased, and CORNELIUS KEIF [1], father of the said GOING’s wife. etc. JOHN (F) GOING and MARY (W) GOING signed this deed.

14 July 1746, JOHN (F) GOING [3] of Truro Parish, planter, sells to Bond Veale, 144 acres granted JOHN GOING [3] from the Proprietor’s office. Recorded Jul. 15, 1746. William Grove, George Dunson, John Duren, witnesses. MARY, the wife of JOHN GOING [3], relinquishes dower.

JOHN ‘GOING’s [3] mark is usually printed as a F. JACK GOINS, who has seen JOHN’s mark on original documents in Brunswick Co., Virginia, stated that, in his opinion, JOHN’s mark is a J superimposed on a G.

Lunenburg Co., Virginia was formed from Brunswick Co. on 1 May 1745.

In June 1747, the Lunenburg Co., Virginia Court designated Lewis Deloney to take the list of tithables in the precinct “from Allen’s Creek to the extent of the County downward.” Allen’s Creek flows south through the approximate center of present Mecklenburg Co. JOHN ‘GOING’s [3] land was on the Great Branch of Allen’s Creek near its confluence with Layton’s Creek. This is in the approximate center of present Mecklenburg Co.

Under Act 22, George II, Oct. 1748, a tithable person was defined as: “All male persons of the age of 16 years & upwards, and all Negroes, mulatto & Indian women of the same age, except Indians tributary to this government and all wives of free Negroes, mulattoes, and Indians, except as before excepted.”

In 1748, JOHN GOING [3] first appeared on Lewis Deloney’s tithe list in Lunenburg Co., Virginia, with two tithes. This indicates that JOHN [3] had a son age 16 or older. That son was WILLIAM [4], who was born in 1732, or earlier. This writer descends from WILLIAM [4].

In 1749, William Howard replaced Lewis Deloney as tithe taker. JOHN GOING [3] was again listed with two tithes, indicating WILLIAM [4] still resided with his parents.

The May 1751 Court of Lunenburg Co., Virginia appointed Field Jefferson tithe taker in the place of William Howard, who had died. On Jefferson’s 1751 tithe list, JOHN GOING [3] was charged with one tithe, while on the same page, a WILLIAM BOING [sic] [4] was charged with one tithe. This indicates that WILLIAM [4] had probably married, and established his own home.

On a different page of Jefferson’s 1751 list, WILLIAM BOING [sic], with JESSE BOING’s [sic] name indented below, was charged with two tithes. Thus, there were at least two WILLIAM ‘GOING’s living in Field Jefferson’s District of Lunenburg Co., Virginia in 1751.

Also in 1751, in Richard Witton’s District a JOHN GOING, with THOS. GOING’s name indented below was charged with three tithes. Thus, there were at least two JOHN GOING’s living in Lunenburg Co., Virginia in 1751.

In 1752, JOHN GOING [3] of Jefferson’s District was charged with two tithes. This indicates that JOHN’s [3] second son had reached the age of 16. This son was JOHN JR [4], who was born about 1736.

The following records show JOHN [3] and MARY (Keith) ‘GOING’ deeding part of their 400 acres to their two sons.
10 Jun. 1761, JOHN GOING SENR [3] & MARY of Lunenburg Co. to son WILLIAM GOING [4] of same place, love & affection, 100 acres, Lunenburg Co., part of 400 acres by patent to said GOING SR [3]. On both sides of Great Branch, where said WILLIAM GOING [4] now lives, adjacent John Ruffin. Signed: JOHN (JG) GOING, MARY (M) GOING. Witnesses: Richard Brown, SARAH GOING, Susie (x) Hubbard. Recorded: 7 July 1761. (Lunenburg Co., Virginia Deed Book 6, pp. 378-379)

10 June 1761, JOHN GOING [3] & MARY of Lunenburg Co., to son JOHN GOING JNR [4], of same place, love & affection, 100 acres, Lunenburg Co., part of 400 acres by patent to said GOING SR [3] 14 Feb. 1761, both sides Great Branch, where said JOHN JNR [4] now lives, adjacent Ruffin. [Signatures and witnesses are the same as above.] (Lunenburg Co., Virginia Deed Book 6)

The “Great Branch” referred to is the Great Branch of Allen’s Creek.

The above deeds show that both WILLIAM ‘GOING’ [4] and JOHN ‘GOING’ JR [4] were living in their own homes, and probably married.

On 1 December 1761, JOHN [3] and MARY ‘GOING’ sold the remaining 200 acres of their patent.

JOHN GOING [3] to Wm Sandifur, both of Lunenburg Co., 100 pounds, 200 acres, Lunenburg Co., both sides Long [Great] Branch, adjacent William Hill, WILLIAM GOING [4], said JOHN GOING [3]. Signed: JOHN (JG) GOING. Witnesses: Thos Norell, John Farrer, Samuel Young, Benjamin Burton. Recorded: 1 Dec. 1761. MARY, wife of GOING relinquishes her dower right. (Lunenburg Co., Virginia Deed Book 7)

On 18 December 1761, JOHN ‘GOING’ JR [4] sold the 100 acres he had received from his parents to his brother WILLIAM [4] for 40 pounds. (Lunenburg Co., Virginia Deed Book 7, p. 48)

On 30 December 1761, WILLIAM ‘GOING’ [4] sold the 100 acres he had received from his parents.

WILLIAM GOING [4] to William Hatsel, both of Lunenburg Co., 40 pounds, 100 acres, Lunenburg Co., Great Branch of Allen’s Creek, adjacent JOHN GOING, new line to John Ruffin. Signed: WILLIAM (W) GOING. Witnesses: Samuel Young, Wm Roffe, William Sandefur, Peter Sandefur. Recorded: 2 Feb. 1762. Lunenburg Co. Deed Book 7. (June Banks Evans, Lunenburg Co., Va., Deed Book 7, 1760-1761, Bryn Ffyliaid Pubs, NO, La., 1990)

WILLIAM ‘GOING’ [4] moved to Orange Co., North Carolina by 6 July 1762.

Mecklenburg Co., Virginia was formed from Lunenburg Co. in 1765.

On 14 March 1768, William Hatsel sold the land he had purchased from WILLIAM ‘GOING’ [4].

William Hatsel of Mecklenburg Co., to Martin Phillips of Mecklenburg Co., for 50 pounds, a certain tract of land in Mecklenburg on both sides of the Long (Great) Branch that makes out of Allen’s Creek, bounded by JOHN GOING [3], new lines, John Ruffin, about 100 acres. Signed: William Hatsel. Witness: none. The deed was acknowledged by William Hatsel and Christiana, his wife. Recorded in Deed Book 1, p. 547. (Mecklenburg Co., Virginia Deeds, 1765-1771, 1990)

The JOHN ‘GOING’ mentioned in the above deed was JOHN SR [3], as JOHN JR [4] had moved to Orange Co., North Carolina by 1765.

End of Part 1

2)  Tim Hashaw email re Melungeons

Below is an email I sent to the editor of the Appalachian Quarterly. I
wanted to send a copy to Manual Mira but Ive seemed to have lost his email

Hello again Patty:

One of the criticisms one will hear against “malungu” as the origin of
“Melungeon” is that the hard “g” in “malungu” could not have been changed to
a soft “g” in “Melungeon”.

Au contrare.

In fact, common usage requires it to change if malungu is indeed the origin
of Melungeon.

The rule for the hard and soft “g” sounds is as follows:

“In many languages “G” is hard before A, O, U and soft (usually) before E,
and I.

For example: .

Guh-Gary as opposed to Juh-Gerald

giga from “large” in Greek, becomes “giant” and “jillion” .

gender, genius, generous,

logos, the Greek for “knowledge” becomes “logical” in English.

giga- (G-) a metric prefix denoting 109 or one billion (in the American
meaning of the word billion). This prefix was coined from the Greek word
gigas, meaning giant. The Greeks pronounced the word with a hard g, as in
“gig.” However, the prefix is usually pronounced with a soft g, as in “jig.”
Dictionaries usually list the hard g pronunciation as a second choice.

Also, the word “jerrymander” comes from the hard G name Gerry.

“SYLLABICATION: ger·ry·man·der
ETYMOLOGY: After Gerry </61/61/G0106100.html> Elbridge + (sala)manderfrom
the shape of an election district created while Gerry was governor of
Massachusetts. WORD HISTORY: “An official statement of the returns of
voters for senators give[s] twenty nine friends of peace, and eleven
gerrymanders.” So reported the May 12, 1813, edition of the Massachusetts
Spy. A gerrymander sounds like a strange political beast, which it is,
considered from a historical perspective. This beast was named by combining
the word salamander, “a small lizardlike amphibian,” with the last name of
Elbridge Gerry, a former governor of Massachusetts—a state noted for its
varied, often colorful political fauna. Gerry (whose name, incidentally, was
pronounced with a hard g, though gerrymander is now commonly pronounced with
a soft g) was immortalized in this word because an election district created
by members of his party in 1812 looked like a salamander. According to one
version of gerrymander’s coining, the shape of the district attracted the eye
of the painter Gilbert Stuart, who noticed it on a map in a newspaper
editor’s office. Stuart decorated the outline of the district with a head,
wings, and claws and then said to the editor, “That will do for a
salamander!” “Gerrymander!” came the reply. The word is first recorded in
April 1812 in reference to the creature or its caricature, but it soon came
to mean not only “the action of shaping a district to gain political
advantage” but also “any representative elected from such a district by that
method.” Within the same year gerrymander was also recorded as a verb.”

In addition, There are many other such words which go from hard “g” to soft
“g” in English, French and many other languages. Lan “g” ua “g”es. Luggage.

Since in the word “Melungeon” the letter “g” is followed by “e”, it is
following this rule. Same is true for “Melungins”. Some insist that it was
originally pronounced “Melunjuns”. But we don’t know that, do we? In the
earliest recorded use it is spelled “Melungins”. See Stoney Creek church

September 26, 1813. Church sat in love. Bro. Kil-gore, Moderator. Then
came forward Sis. Kitchen and com-plained to the Church against Susanna
Stallard for saying she harbored “them Melungins”. Sis. Sook said she was
hurt with her for believing her child and not be-lieving her, and she won’t
talk to her to get satisfaction, and both is pigedish [pig-headedish] one
against the other. Sis. Sook lays it down and the church forgives her.”

This best evidence is that in the case of the Kimbundu “malungu” as the
possible origin for the American “Melungeon”, it would follow this customary
rule of the hard “g” becoming a soft “g” in the English language.

Tim Hashaw
Houston, Texas

3)  An Editorial . . . re series by Tim Hashaw on Melungeons

From my great-grandmother down, I have held the hands of seven
generations of my family. And they have all been different–
even unique, and not a clone among them. I have not had any
difficulty is getting my cousins to accept them. They, too,
have seen and touched them.

This genetic string will ultimately embrace a probable
total of 210 years–about the same as the lifespan of the
United States so far. And my generations are not unique.
Many of the Foundation researchers
have also seen seven, perhaps more, generations of their

I do have difficulty in introducing my more distant ancestors to my
cousins, particularly when I suggest that 10 generations
back, there are Melungeons among them. Their next question
is, “What kind of Melungeons?”

Some are willing to accept Melungeons in the family if they are
French Huguenots, or Black Dutch, or Spanish Conversos, or
Carthagenians, or Ottoman Turks, or Black Irish, or the
prisoners of Sir Frances Drake on Roanoke Island, or the
Portuguese survivors of Santa Elena, or Croatans, or
Cherokees, or Catawbas, or Lumbees, or
Choctaws, or Redbones, or Brass Ankles.

But if you offer as Melungeons, Tri-racial Isolates,
Portuguese Angolans, Creoles, Spanish mestizos, Ndongos,
etc, a line has been drawn in the sand.

A flurry of regretable wrangling and rancor erupted
last month over the Melungeon series of articles by Editorial
Boardmember Tim Hashaw in the Newsletter. Mr. Hashaw is a dedicated
professional investigative reporter who did an intense amount of
research in the preparation of his articles. The Foundation requested
his permission to carry the series of articles and considers them as
objective reporting.

The series was supported by as much or more historical
research and detailed documenatation as any of the more
than 600 other researchers who have contributed compilations to the Foundation
Manuscript and the Newsletter.

Mr. Hashaw has a string of impressive literary accomp-
lishments to his credit and does not deserve the kind of
emotional reaction that his work received.

It has not been requested that you agree with Mr.
Hashaw’s conclusions as to the origin of the Melungeons, only that you give
him the courtesy of a fair hearing.

In the past 11 years, the thoughts of many writers
regarding the source of the Melungeons has appeared in
the Newsletter and have have been well received. The
Foundation has been honored by an impressive group of
talented writers who wrote on the subject including: Dr.
N. Brent Kennedy, Col. Carroll Heard Goyne, Jack Harold
Goins, Dr. Virginia Easley DeMarce, Prof. John Thornton, Dr. Engel Sluiter,
Prof. Linda Heywood, Johnie Blair Deen, Evelyn McKinley Orr, Louise
Goins Richardson, Mattie Ruth Johnson, Donna Gowin
Johnston, Della Ford Nash, Carol Ledford, Harold Frank
Gowing, Helen B. Wasson, Prof. Eloy J. Gallegos, Manuel
Mira, Lewis Shepherd, Adele Logan Alexander, Guy G. Weaver,
Bonnie Ball, Paul Heinegg, James R. Callahan, Beverly J.
Ellison Nelson, Jaymie Friedman Frederick, Anna J. Going
Friedman, Sandra M. Loridans, Dr. Will Moreau Goins,
John Noble Wilfor, Twanda E. Buckreis, Johnnie Rhea,
Dr. Charles K. Stallard, Bradley R. Garretson, Ethel
Louise Goins Dunn, Cleve Weathers, Robert J. Goyen, Dr.
Jerry Lee Goen, Don C. Marler, Dianne Stark Thurman and

As you know, not all of the writers above agreed on the
origin of the Melungeons, but the ideas of each were welcome.

It is interesting to note that the Melungeons are found
in many branches of the Gowen/etc. family, regardless
of the spelling of the surname. The Melungeons appear
to be a “Genetic Skeleton Key” that opens many doors.

Please be assured that the Newsletter will continue its
even-handed policy of equal treatment to all of the
various views on the Melungeons. Its columns will always be open
for all members to express their views on the subject.

Currently several DNA studies are being conducted–one
dealing exclusively with individuals of Melungeon descent.
It is predicted that the gene counts will in time reveal a great deal
more about the Melungeons. An upcoming Newsletter article
by Col. Carroll Heard Goyne who helped to arrange DNA
testing among the Cypriots will be of interest to all.

Recently geneticists made headlines when it was determined
that ten men and seven women were the original progenitors
of the entire population of Europe today. It was also
discovered that all 17 originated in Africa!

Does that mean that the Caucasians and the Anglo-Saxons
were the first Melungeons? Or that they have not always been white?

The “unsubbers” will no longer have the benefit of the
information and historical data carried in the columns of the
Newsletter nor the constructive feed-back of its readers. The
Foundation is pleased to find that apparently no “dues-paying” members
of the organization were included among the “unsubbers.” The handful of
dissenters who left the fold involved only the subscribers who were receiving
the Newsletter for free.

If Mihil Gowen, the Portuguese Angolan slave of York County, Virginia

Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts.




NOTE:  The above information produced by the Gowen Research Foundation (GRF), and parts of the “Gowen Manuscript” they worked on producing.  It has tons of information – much of it is correct, but be careful, some of it is not correct – so check their sources and logic.  I’ve copied some of their information in the past researching my own family, only to find out there were some clear mistakes.   So be sure to check the information to verify if it is right before citing the source and believing the person who researched it before was 100% correct.  Most of the information I found there seems to be correct, but some is not.

Their website is:  Internet: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~gowenrf

There does not seem to be anyone “manning the ship” at the Gowen Research Foundation, or Gowen Manuscript site any longer, and there is no way to contact anyone about any errors.   The pages themselves don’t have a mechanism to leave a note for others to see any “new information” that you may have that shows when you find info that shows something is wrong, or when something has been verified.

Feel free to leave messages about any new information found, or errors in these pages, or information that has been verified that those who wrote these pages may not have known about.

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