Sections in this issue:
1) GOING FAMILY FUTILY CRISS-CROSSED AMERICA TO ESCAPE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION;
2) FOURTEEN FAMILY MEMBERS APPEAR IN DIRECTORY OF WASHINGTON, D.C. IN 1890;
3) JAMES GOWAN INDICTED FOR THE MURDER OF HIS ELDERLY MOTHER IN PHILADELPHIA;
4) Dear Cousins.
All Gowen Manuscript Pages and Newsletters: https://goyengoinggowengoyneandgone.com/gowen-research-foundation-pages-and-info/
GOWEN RESEARCH FOUNDATION ELECTRONIC NEWSLETTER
March 2000 Volume 3 No. 3
1) GOING FAMILY FUTILY CRISS-CROSSED AMERICA TO ESCAPE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
By Anna Going Friedman, Jaymie Friedman Frederick
and Helen Bonnie Moore
3605 Debra Drive, Somerset, Kentucky, 42503
In the preceding installments, the Newsletter readers
were introduced to a group of South Carolinians ident-
ified as “Free Negroes, Mulattoes and Mustizoes” which
included Isaac Going, Levi Going, Edward Going, Sr.
and Edward Going, Jr. They had joined 17 other men of
Camden District in petitioning the State Legislature
for a reduction in their taxes which had been doubled,
only on free people of color, in 1791. Apparently the
petition, which was endorsed by prominent men of Fair-
field County, was denied.
The Goings and several of the 17 other men appeared on
the frontier of Western Kentucky shortly afterward.
Inequitable taxation and other forms of discrimination
in South Carolina apparently prompted the move.
Alex C. Finley was an early-day historian in northwest
Kentucky who wrote five volumes dealing with the early
history and development of Western Kentucky and Middle
The preceding four installments allow Going researchers
to peek into the lives of a group of people of which
the Going family was a part. This group of people was
labeled “Black/Free Persons of Color.” They suffered
under the burden of racial discrimination and lived as
fifth class citizens, a notch even below the slaves.
They fled both North and South Carolina because of
racial hatred and oppression.
One of the questions we must ask ourselves is did they
learn a lesson from the Turks of Sumter County, South
Carolina? The Turks represented themselves as being
citizens of Turkey and therefore not “Black/FPC.” In
Logan County Kentucky our group represented themselves
as Portuguese and Egyptian.
Some Melungeons had a legitimate claim to a Portuguese
ancestry, their ancestors having arrived in Jamestown,
Virginia in 1619 from Portuguese Angola. In contrast
to colonization efforts of the British, the French and
the Dutch, the Portuguese did not plant colonies. They
organized each territory as a state in the Portuguese
nation, and the inhabitants of each became citizens of
Portugal. [Newsletter, February 1999].
The attempt by these people to evade a racial stigma
and its consequences in the culture of the United
States two centuries ago is understandable.
We also see our group as settlers in and around Vin-
cennes, Indiana. There racial discrimination contin-
ued against them. We have family histories wherein
our ancestors claim an Indian heritage. Some of the
family history concern stories of the “Trail of
Tears” which occurred in 1836. Some of our family
was in Indiana Territory as early as 1800. Was the
claim to an Indian ancestry an attempt by the Vincen-
nes group to avoid being labeled “Black?” About 1835
Indians were labeled FPC not Black.
John and William Morriss are represented as pious,
upstanding and industrious men in Kentucky, Indiana
and Illinois. Even the white supporters of Petition
No. 164 spoke highly of these men. William Morriss’s
will of 1834 is surprising in that he had substant-
ial holdings. Most wills of that era are pathetic
in that they show very little property and few per-
Early on in the research of our Going family we found
references to their being counterfeiters and their
constant troubles with the law. After reading Alex
C. Finley’s book and Brinkerhoff’s book; it was ne-
cessary for us to sit down and take a long hard look
at the information supplied and the allegations. We
believe that it is necessary that we understand what
it is to be considered fifth class citizens. Unless
we had lived in those conditions, it would be diffi-
cult for us to say what we would have done under
the circumstances of 200 years ago.
Both Finley and Brinkerhoff give excellent indica-
tions as to how the Murrell and Going gangs worked.
We sat down with a map and marked the locations of
the Going clan that we have been researching. Cir-
cumstantial evidence, such as it was, certainly set
up an ideal scenario to support the claims of the
Murrell and Going gangs’ operations.
Using a map, the locations of our Going family–Fair-
field County, South Carolina, Wilkes County Georgia
Port Gibson, Mississippi [known hangout for thieves]
Nashville, Tennessee, Logan County, Kentucky, Liv-
ingston [now Crittenden] County, Kentucky, Cave-in-
the-Rock], Shawneetown, Illinois [Murrell’s Gang],
Vincennes, Indiana, Randolph County, Illinois, Wal-
nut Grove, Illinois–are notorious.
These locations certainly reflect that they had a
wide range in which to operate; and these locations
are within the boundaries where Finley stated the
Murrell qang operated.
As mentioned earlier, our family left Kentucky with
the accusation of counterfeiters hanging over them.
Finley’s “History Of Russellville and Logan County,
Kentucky” recounts the activities of Phillip Alston,
a notorious counterfeiter of Logan County who later
moved to Livingston County and “became the fast
friend and disciple of the notorious counterfeiter,
Sturdevant, at the Cave-in-the-Rock.”
Our family moved to Missouri and Arkansas and their
limited resources does not reflect any great accumu-
lated wealth from counterfeiting schemes. One would
assume that if they were truly counterfeiters that
they would have accumulated some wealth.
On the other hand, fifth class citizens were all
dabbed with “the same tarbrush” and some were falsely
accused just to drive them out of a community.
If that seems incredible, consider the documentation
found in Livingston/Crittenden County that in 1807,
the elder John Levy Going tried to marry a white
woman in Livingston County and was turned away by
the Justice because of his rumored “Negro” blood.
An article found in the Marion, Kentucky library
reveals, “They went away but a few days after, they
returned for marriage. The woman swore that she had
“Negro” blood in her, which she did. Just before
they started, the man cut a vein and she drank some
of his blood. She had his blood in her.”
There is also proof that at least two of the sons
of John Levy Going, Abner A. and John Levi, Jr,
were married in Pope County, Illinois just across
the river from Livingston/Crittenden County. They
were married in the 1830s, but in the 1840s war-
rants were issued for both of these men and their
spouses for the crime of fornication!
No one bothered to check to see if they were law-
fully married. The townspeople were determined to
remove the Going individuals from their midst,
and they would stop at nothing to do so.
In the 1890s, an old man in Crittenden County was
asked to comment on the early settlers in the re-
gion. He mentioned that quite a few people came
from South Carolina including John Going. He fur-
ther stated that John Going was a slave owner, and
it was rumored that slave blood ran in his veins,
The rumors about the Goings had remained alive in-
to the 1890s. Their reputation remained alive in
the 1990s when we made a research trip to Critten-
den County. An 80-year-old man recalled hearing
stories about the “infamous” Going family.
It is odd that Going School there was named for
them. The school sat on the land that they had be-
longed to the Goings before leaving for Arkansas
and Missouri. Children that attended this school,
were aware of the cemetery located near the school.
They were told by thelr parents that the cemetery
was an old Indian graveyard. One thing is certain,
the citizenry of Crittenden County were not sure
of the lineage of the Going family, but they felt
that the Goings were not white nor equals.
It is clear that the Going clan of Camden District,
South Carolina in the late 1700s and early 1800’s
spawned families who settled in Sumter County,
South Carolina, Davidson County, Tennessee, Wilkes
County, Georgia, Logan County, Kentucky, Knox
County, Indiana, Claiborne County, Mississippi,
Livingston County, Kentucky and Gallatin and Craw-
ford Counties, Illinois.
By 1850 our Going family was in Lawrence County,
Missouri along with Pleasant and William Going
from Illinois. Was this a coincidence?
Edward Going was very much a shadowy figure in
Camden District of South Carolina. He appears
there on occasion living with family. It is sug-
gested that he was from the Going family of Gran-
ville County, North Carolina. The names of Ed-
ward Going and Moses Going are associated in
this area. Moses Going and Agnes Going of Vir-
ginia, North Carolina and Wilkes County Georgia
are the progenitors of our Livingston County, Ken-
Finley has certainly provided a clear insight
into the lives of the tax protestors from South
Carolina. Somewhere more documentation exists,
perhaps in courthouse basements, in dimly lit
archives, in yellowing ship records or in musty
private journals that will validate the claims
of “Portuguese and Egyptian” descent.
Foundation members today are the best equipped
researchers, among all generations of historians
to the present, to find the answers. The chal-
lenge to us is to prove or disprove the tradi-
tions and the theories of our ancestry.
If not you, then who?
2) FOURTEEN FAMILY MEMBERS APPEAR IN DIRECTORY OF WASHINGTON, D.C. IN 1890
One Hundred Years after George Washington nego-
tiated with a young French military engineer,
Pierre Charles L’Enfant to layout a new capital
for the United States, a number of individuals
of interest to Foundation researchers were re-
corded as residents of Washington, D.C.
In 1790, the states of Virginia and Maryland
were asked to give up an area 10 miles square
of their territory for the District of Columbia.
L’Enfant, a volunteer in the American Revolu-
tion, laid out an ambitious construction plan.
He visualized a city of 800,000 people, when
the entire nation had only four times that many
Then, not much happened. Ten years later, the
National Archives, government officials and
general offices were moved to the site from
Philadelphia. By 1808, only 5,000 people were
living in Washington. Six years later, the
War of 1812 had moved up the Potomac River to
threaten the fledgling capitol city, and the
city was abandoned. The British fleet stood
in the middle of the Potomac, and Adm. Sir
George Cockburn gave the order to put the torch
to the Capitol, the White House and the Naval
At that time, the nation lost little in Wash-
ington, but its pride. Although the British
regarded the action as inconsequential, it did
solidify the young nation’s resolve to fight
on and to finish the job that was begun in 1776.
The second Revolutionary War did not take near-
ly so long.
In 1890, the population of Washington, D.C.
had increased to 232,000 people, and a city
directory was published. Listed in it were:
Householder Profession Address
Goin, Isaac S. Student 1616 4th NW
Goings, Arthur B. Blacksmith 3135 K NW
Goings, Kate 1512 14th NW
Goings, Lavinia Cook 911 Desmond SW
Goings, Missouri Bookbinder 1224 Wylie NE
Goins, Hanibal Coachman 1526 Madison NW
Goins, Prince Slater 1526 Madison NW
Goins, Rosa Washing 2425 F NW
Gowan, William Milk 1423 L NW
Gowans, James Plate Printer 951 25th NW
Gowans, Margaret Clerk 951 25th NW
Gowans, Lewis Laborer 2622 P NW
Gowans, Mary A. Widow of Peter 2630 K NW
Gowans, Lucy Engraver 2630 K NW
Individuals of interest to Foundation research-
ers in the 1891 directory were:
Goings, Arthur B. Blacksmith 3135 K NW
Goings, Lewis Laborer 2622 P NW
Goings, Missouri Clerk 617 Q NW
Goings, Rosa 2425 F NW
Goins, George W. Upholsterer 428 Washtn NW
Gowan, Thomas M. Printer 1219 6th NW
Gowan, William E. Collector 70 Defrees NW
Gowans, Mary A. Widow of Peter 2630 K NW
Gowans, Alice Clerk 2630 K NW
Gowans, Lucy Engraver 2630 K NW
Gowans James Plate Printer 949 25th NW
Brooks, Gowen W. Draftsman 115 B NE
3) JAMES GOWAN INDICTED FOR THE MURDER OF HIS ELDERLY MOTHER IN PHILADELPHIA
James Gowan, an unemployed sailor, was indicted
in May 1900 for the murder of his aged mother,
according to “Violent Death in the City, Suicide,
Accident and Murder in Nineteenth Century Phila-
delphia, Pennsylvania” by Roger Lane.
The account read:
“It was clear that Sarah Gowan had hanged herself,
and the coroner’s jury had so ruled. But James
Gowan’s apparent indifference, the general disor-
der of their joint household, and a history of
general ill will combined to make a bad impression,
and the District Attorney was moved to charge that
he had ‘driven’ the old woman into taking her life.
James Gowan was declared ‘not guilty’ of the mur-
4) ==Dear Cousins==
I am searching for information on John Lewis
Goins who lived in Muscogee County, Georgia,
and married Martha Crouch some time in the
1850s. My granddad James Andrew Goins was
born to them January 10th 1858.
John Lewis Goins served in Co. “A,” 7th Georgia
Cavalry during the Civil War and was fatally
injured in the Battle of Gettysburg. He died
in the hospital at Richmond, VA and was buried
there. Any help would be appreciated.
Ernest Pope Boland
I am seeking information on my gggm Elizabeth
Ann Gowan/Gowen who was born in TN in 1844.
She appeared as a five-year-old in the house-
hold of her parents John & Elizabeth Gowen in
the 1850 census of Coffee County, TN. She
was mc1870 to Phillip Roland. They were liv-
ing at Honey Grove, TX in 1872. Later she was
remarried to James K. McGregory. She died in
1951 in Electra, Texas.
Duval, WA, 4799
Francis M. Goin, Elenor E. Goin, Green Goin,
Henry Goin and Edmund Goin were enumerated in
the 1850 census of Claiborne County, living in
household No. 1048, that of William Hamilton,
possibly their step-father:
“Hamilton, William 43, born in TN, farmer,
Permalia 40, born in TN, wife
Goin, Francis M. 20, born in TN, farmer
Elenor E. 18, born in TN
Green 14, born in TN
Hamilton, Ann J. 8, born in TN
Sarah J. 6, born in TN
Mary J. 2, born in TN
Sidnea 20, born in TN, female
Goin, Henry 43, born in TN, laborer
Goin, Edmond 33, born in NC, laborer
Johnson, Joseph P. 22, born in TN, farmer,
Personal prop. $150”
Any information concerning Francis M. Goin will
be greatly appreciated. He may possibly be my
great-grandfather. Any clues, anybody?
Terry B. Hildreth
I am seeking information on my grandmother, Pinkie
Goines/Goynes. I have seen the surname spelled both
ways. She was born May 12, 1891 in Union Parish, LA.
Her father’s name was George Goines. If you know
anything about this family, please contact me. We
are having a family reunion May 26-28, and I have
been requested to make a presentation on her ances-
try. Thanks in advance for your help.
In the “Transactions of the Yorkshire Antiquarian
Society” Vol XVI on Ingleby Arncliffe families,
there is a “marriage of Anne Mauleverer September
14, 1780 at Arncliffe to Clotworthy Gowan of Bes-
singby, near Bridlington esq, and of the East India
Service. He died September 25, 1809, having at-
tained the rank of Colonel, and was buried at Weston
near Bath. She died June 1, 1832 and was buried at
St. Martin-in-the-Fields on June 7, They had issue.”
I wonder how Colonel Gowan came to have such an un-
usual first name and ask if anyone has come across
Halifax, Yorkshire, England
We have some of your answers. As to the name, the
Colonel “inherited” it. There was at least one
other so named who preceded him. See snip from
Foundation Manuscript below:
Clotworth Gowan was appointed a chaplain to Col.
John Michelburne’s Regiment, Irish troops, Janu-
ary 11, 1700. He was appointed a chaplain to Col.
Henry Conyingham’s Regiment of Irish Dragoons De-
cember 19, 1700. His commission was renewed in 1702.
A younger Clotworth Gowan, Esquire “of Bessingby,
near Bridlington and of the East India Service,” was
married to Anne Mauleverer, daughter of Thomas Mau-
leverer September 14 1780 at Ingleby Arncliffe, ac-
cording to “Transactions of Yorkshire Antiquarian
Society,” Vol. XVI. Thomas Mauleverer died in 1785,
according to “Landed Gentry.” Col. Clotworth Gowan
died September 25, 1809 and was buried at Weston
near Bath. Anne Mauleverer Gowan died June 1, 1832
and was buried at St. Martin-in-the-Fields.
Children born to Clotworth Gowan and Anne Mauleverer
William Gowan born about 1783
William Gowan, son of Col. Clotworth Gowan and Anne
Mauleverer Gowan, was born about 1783. Later he
changed his name to Mauleverer. He died in 1857,
according to “History of Yorkshire-North Riding.”
NOTE: The above information produced by the Gowen Research Foundation (GRF), and parts of the “Gowen Manuscript” they worked on producing. It has tons of information – much of it is correct, but be careful, some of it is not correct – so check their sources and logic. I’ve copied some of their information in the past researching my own family, only to find out there were some clear mistakes. So be sure to check the information to verify if it is right before citing the source and believing the person who researched it before was 100% correct. Most of the information I found there seems to be correct, but some is not.
Their website is: Internet: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~gowenrf
There does not seem to be anyone “manning the ship” at the Gowen Research Foundation, or Gowen Manuscript site any longer, and there is no way to contact anyone about any errors. The pages themselves don’t have a mechanism to leave a note for others to see any “new information” that you may have that shows when you find info that shows something is wrong, or when something has been verified.
Feel free to leave messages about any new information found, or errors in these pages, or information that has been verified that those who wrote these pages may not have known about.