Sections in this issue:
1) Discovery Offers Portuguese Angolans as Melungeon Link;
2) War of 1812 Soldiers Installed On Internet by Sierra Center;
3) Dear Cousins.
All Gowen Manuscript Pages and Newsletters: https://goyengoinggowengoyneandgone.com/gowen-research-foundation-pages-and-info/
GOWEN RESEARCH FOUNDATION NEWSLETTER
Volume 10, No. 5 January 1999
1) Discovery Offers Portuguese Angolans as Melungeon Link
The first shipment of slaves into Virginia now are identified as Portuguese Angolans by Engel Sluiter, a California historian who has delved into early Portuguese maritime records. The English colonists hardly knew what to do with the some two dozen blacks who landed from a Dutch ship at Jamestown in the summer of 1619.
There were no large plantations at that time to utilize slave labor. And the English colonists were accustomed to endentured servants who worked for their masters a specified number of years to pay for their passage to the New World and for their freedom–and they were unaccustomed to lifetime slavery.
Probably the condition of the slaves was not much worse than that of the endentured servants brought over from England. At times it might have been even better because the master had reason to take care of his slave who represented capital, whereas he had no similar incentive in regard to the condition of the endentured servant.
The development of slavery came extremely slow in Virginia. In 1681 only 2,000 black slaves were recorded there as opposed to 6,000 endentured servants. With the development of southern plantations, the importation of slaves rapidly increased. In 1754, 263,000 slaves were reported as taxable property. By 1860, 4,441,863 slaves were enumerated in the U.S. census.
Melungeon researchers point to several facts developed by Sluiter in his research suggesting that these early Angolan slaves were possibly a genetic component of the mysterious Melungeons. Many researchers have despaired of ever finding the origin of this enigmatic race. Their beginning has long been obscured in the mists of antiquity, but now progress is being reported in perhaps one genetic component of their forbears.
Most of the Angolans simply stepped off the gangplank into obscurity; only one possible member of the group, John Geaween, has been found in Colonial Virginia records examined thus far. By making a deal to raise hogs “on the halves” with his master, Geaween earned his freedom, according to “Virginia Council and General Court Records, 1640-1641.”
On March 31, 1641 the Virginia Court ordered:
“That John Geaween being a negro servant unto William Evans was permitted by his said master to keep hogs and made the best benefit thereof to himself provided that the said Evans might have half the increase . . . and whereas the said negro having a young child of a negro woman belonging to Lieut. Robert Sheppard . . . the said negro did for his said child purchase its freedom of Lieut. Robert Sheppard . . . the court hath therefore ordered that the child shall be free from the said Evans . .”
Sluiter determined that the Angolans were placed aboard the Portuguese merchant-slave ship “Sao Joao Bautisto” at the Angolan port of Sao Paulo da Luanda on the African west coast. The ship, heading for the New World, was attacked in the West Indes by the Dutch ship, and its human cargo fell into the hands of the privateers. The Dutch captain promptly set sail for Virginia to sell his human prize.
The Portuguese had fallen into the slave trade by accident. Toward the close of the war with the Moors, the Portuguese captured a group of Moorish prisoners-of-war. The Moroccans offered an even larger group of Blacks to secure the release of the Moors, and the Portuguese accepted the ransom. Immediately they were in business.
In 1420 Prince Henry the Navigator came to power in Portugal and immediately set about to build up a navy and a merchant fleet. He organized skilled map makers, ship builders, navigators and seamen into an immense maritime task force in an effort to dominate the world’s sealanes.
His aims were five-fold: He wanted to develop a Portuguese empire. He wanted to explore for a sea route to reach India and its lucrative spice trade. He wanted to fight the Muslims on their own soil. He wanted to accommodate the Catholics in their desire to Christianize the world. And he wanted to finance all of this expansion with the African slave trade.
His efforts were imminently successful. Portuguese captains in 1430 claimed Madiera, the Canary Islands and the Azores, uninhabited until then. Quickly the Cape Verde Islands, “Sao Tome & Principe, Guinea and Mozambique were added to the Empire. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and discovered the coveted Spice Route. Vasco da Gama in 1497 claimed Brazil. In 1506 Adm. Tristao da Cunha discovered the South Atlantic island that still bears his name today. The Portuguese Navy wiped out the Muslim Navy in a sea battle off Diu in 1509. Pedro Alvarez Cabral reached China in 1542 and established Macao in 1557.
Probing the West African coast, they reached the mouth of the Congo River in 1482 and claimed 1,000 miles of the coast as Angola. Paulo Dias de Novais founded Luanda as its capital in 1576 and brought in the Catholic Church who began to convert the inhabitants, scattered over 481,000 square miles, an area almost 150 times larger that Portugal itself. A native monarchy, the Manicongo, sought conversion and alliance with the Portuguese. As a result, today 3,000,000 Angolans are Catholic.
In contrast to the colonization efforts of the British, the French and the Dutch, the Portuguese did not plant colonies. They organized each territory as a state in the Portuguese nation, and the inhabitants of each became Portuguese.
Thus when the Portuguese Angolans stepped of the gangplank in Jamestown in 1719, they were Portuguese citizens, spoke the Portuguese language and were Christians. Perhaps they eventually linked up with the descendants of the Portuguese survivors of the Spanish colony of Santa Elena which was established by Capt. Joao Pardo in 1566 in presentday Parris Island, South Carolina.
It is suggested that it was their descendants that Capt. John Sevier encountered in the Appalachians when he was dispatched by John Murray Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia. His mission was to pacify the Indians before the outbreak of Lord Dunmore’s War in 1774.
In a report to Lord Dunmore, Capt. Sevier mentioned his encounter with a mysterious people he found west of the mountains. He described them as dark skinned, of reddish-brown complexion, neither Negro nor Indian, but with European features and who claimed to be Portuguese.
Another description of the possible Melungeons was given by early explorers Abraham Wood and James Needlum. According to Wood’s journal, “Eight days jorney down this river lives a white people which have long beards and whiskers and weares clothing.”
Samuel Cole Williams, LLD, wrote in “Early Travels in the Tennessee Country,” “There is a tradition among the early Cherokees that they respected a settlement of white men among them.” “Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee” by Haywood also deals with the early white men who lived among the Cherokees. Mention is made that they displayed a cross, iron implements and were called to assembly by a bell, suggesting a Catholic influence.
2) War of 1812 Soldiers Installed On Internet by Sierra Center
One hundred ninety-four soldiers of interest to Foundation members served in the War of 1812, according to Sierra Home Family Tree Research Center, an Internet website.
The Center launched its new service recently with a data base of the men who served in the War of 1812, and the service is available to any researcher without charge. Each month a new data base is offered “from the Titanic passenger list to the Confederate generals,” according to the Center’s description.
Currently it also offers the Social Security Death Index, a listing of 50,000,000 deceased American workers. In the future, a researcher may scan the Center’s Generations program which combines all of its searchable data bases into one. The program presently offers records on 57,000,000 individuals.
Soldiers listed in the War of 1812 military organizations include:
Gawen, William 11th VA Militia Regt. [Parker’s]
Goen James Bunch’s E. TN Militia Regt.
Goen Blidson Wooton’s Detachment, GA Militia
Goen Charles F. Capt. Dodge’s LA Mounted Riflemen
Goen Isaac 4th E. TN Militia Regt. [Bayles’]
Goens John 4th GA Militia Regt. [Booth’s]
Goens Nathan 4th E. TN Militia Regt. [Bayles’]
Goin Canaan 2nd KY Volunteer Regt. [Jennings’]
Goin Edward Maj. Cameron’s Command NC Militia
Goin Francis 11th KY Mounted Volunteers [Williams’]
Goin Henry 4th KY Mounted Volunteers [Ewing’s]
Goin Isaac 4th E. TN Militia Regt. [Bayles’]
Goin Isaac 3rd E. TN Militia Regt. [Johnson’s]
Goin John 4th VA Militia Regt. [Beatty’s]
Goin John 5th KY Volunteer Regt. [Lewis’]
Goin John 2nd E. TN Volunteer Regt. [Lillard’s]
Goin Joseph Col. Ulmer’s Volunteer Regt. U.V.
Goin William Maj. Cameron’s Command, NC Militia
Goin William Capt. Dowd’s Co, NC Militia
Goin William 4th E. TN Militia Regt. [Bayles’]
Going Caleb 2nd E. TN Volunteer Regt. [Lillard’s]
Going Canaan 2nd KY Volunteer Regt. [Jennings’]
Going James 1st MA Militia Regt. [Dudley’s]
Going Jason 1st W. TN Militia Regt. [Wynne’s]
Going John 6th VA Militia Artilery Regt. [Read’s]
Going John S. KY Mounted Volunteer Regt. [Johnson’s]
Going Joseph Col. Ulmer’s Regt, USA Volunteers
Going Pleasant USA Volunteer Rangers
Going Pleasant Capt. Moore’s IL Militia Mtd. Riflemen
Going Samuel 4th MA Militia Regt. [Coming’s]
Going William USA Volunteer Rangers
Going William Capt. Judy’s IL Militia Mounted Spies [scouts]
Going Wolf Col. Morgan’ Cherokee Regt.
Goings Edward Maj. Cameron’s Command, NC Militia
Goings John 5th MA Militia Regt. [Foote’s]
Goings Pleasant USA Volunteer Rangers
Goings Pleasant Capt. Moore’s IL Militia Mtd. Riflemen
Goings Shedrick 14th VA Militia Regt. [Van Meter’s]
Goings William USA Volunteer Rangers
Goings William Capt. Judy’s IL Mounted Militia
Goings William Capt. Moore’s IL Militia Mtd. Riflemen
Goins Amos 12th & 13th LA Consolidated Regt.
Goins Edward Maj. Cameron’s Command, NC Militia
Goins John 4th GA Militia Regt. [Booth’s]
Goins Joseph Col. Ulmer’s Regt, USA Volunteers
Goins Joseph 1st DC Militia Regt.
Goins William Maj. Cameron’s Command, NC Militia
Gorin Gladin 10th KY Volunteer Mtd. Regt. [Barbour’s]
Gorin Henry 4th KY Volunteer Mtd. Regt. [Ewing’s]
Gorin John 10th KY Volunteer Mtd. Regt. [Barbours’s]
Gorin John D. 6th KY Militia Regt. [Barbour’s]
Gorin Thomas 5th VA Militia Regt
Gouin Leon USA, Spies [scouts]
Gouin Medard 1st MI Militia Regt. [Godfroy’s]
Gowan Andrew 1st W. TN Militia Regt. [Metcalfe’s]
Gowan David Connell’s Odd Battalion, OH Militia
Gowan George 1st MD Militia Artillery Regt. [Harris’]
Gowan James TN Regt, Vol. Cavalry & Mounted Gunmen
Gowan James R. 1st MS Territorial Regt, USA Volunteers
Gowan John 5th MD Militia Cavalry Regt, [Biay’s]
Gowan Joseph 2nd W. TN Vol. Mounted Gunmen [Cannon’s]
Gowan Nicholas 1st MD Militia Regt, [Ragan’s]
Gowan William 2nd E. TN Vol. Mounted Gunmen, [Brown’s]
Gowan William 1st TN Volunteer Mounted Gunmen, [Dyer’s]
Gowan William H. 7th VA Militia Regt [Gray’s]
Gowans John Bunch’s E. TN Militia Regt.
Gowen Alpheus 1st MA Militia Regt [Nowell’s]
Gowen Andrew 1st W TN Milita Regt [Metcalfe’s]
Gowen Elisha Hind’s MS Militia Cavalry Battalion
Gowen George 1st MD Militia Artillery Regt [Harris’]
Gowen James K. 1st MS Territory Volunteer Regt, USA
Gowen John 1st MA Militia Regt [Nowell’s]
Gowen John 4th VA Militia Regt [Beatty’s]
Gowen John 5th MA Militia Regt [Foote’s]
Gowen John Col. Ulmer’s Volunteer Regt, USA
Gowen Joseph 2nd W. TN Volunteer Mounted Gunmen Regt
Gowen Levi 1st MA Militia Regt [Hobbs’]
Gowen Moses 1st MA Militia Regt [Hobbs’]
Gowen Nathan 1st MA Militia Regt [Hobbs’]
Gowen Nenoah [Manoah?] 1st W TN Militia Regt [Metcalfe’s]
Gowen Pleasant USA Volunteer Rangers
Gowen William USA Volunteer Rangers
Gowens William H. 7th VA Militia Regt [Gray’s]
Gowens Galloway 16th KY Militia Regt [Porter’s]
Gowens John Bunch’s E. TN Militia Regt
Gowin Asa 4th MA Militia Regt [Comings]
Gowin James Bunch’s E. TN Militia Regt
Gowin James 7th VA Militia Regt [Gray’s]
Gowin James K. 1st MS Territory Volunteer Regt, USA
Gowin John Capt. Bradley’s Co, NC Militia
Gowin John 4th VA Militia Regt [Beatty’s]
Gowin John 5th MA Militia Regt [Foote’s]
Gowin Jordan 7th VA Militia Regt [Gray’s]
Gowin Joseph Col. Culmer’s Volunteer Regt, USA
Gowin Joseph 4th MA Militia Regt [Coming’s]
Gowin Nathan 1st MA Militia Regt [Nowell’s]
Gowin Nathaniel 4th MA Militia Regt [Coming’s]
Gowin Pleasant Capt. Woods Co, IL & MO Militia
Gowin Samuel 7th VA Militia Regt [Gray’s]
Gowin William 7th VA Militia Regt [Gray’s]
Gowing John 7th VA Militia Regt [Saunder’s]
Gowing Joseph Brimblecom’s MA Militia Regt
Gowing William Volunteer Rangers, USA
Gowing William Col. Morgan’s Cherokee Regt
Gowins Drury 4th E. TN Militia Regt [Bayles’]
Gowins Joseph Renick’s OH Mounted Militia Regt
Gowins Michael Coleman’s VA Militia Regt
Gowins Wishock 4th E. TN Militia Regt [Bayles’]
Gowings Pleasant Volunteer Rangers, USA
Gowings William Volunteer Rangers, USA
Goyne Amos 3rd W. TN Militia Regt, [Roulston’s]
Goyne Jeremiah Cheatham’s Det, TN Militia Mounted Infantry
Goyne John 4th GA Militia Regt [Booth’s]
Guyne Andrew 2nd VA Militia Regt [Evans’]
Guyne Charles Capt. Lingle’s OH Militia Co.
McGowan Abraham Dannaldson’s KY Mounted Volunteer Regt
McGowan Andrew 3rd OH Militia Regt [Bay’s]
McGowan Archibald Ferree’s PA Militia Regt
McGowan Cormick 3rd Regt, USA Volunteers
McGowan Daniel McLaure’s NY Volunteer Militia Regt
McGowan Daniel 41st VA Militia Regt [Bramham’s]
McGowan David 2nd W. TN Volunteer Militia Regt [Pillow’s]
McGowan Dennis 2nd Artillery Regt, USA Volunteers
McGowan George Capt. Thomas’ Co, PA Militia
McGowan George Snider’s PA Militia Regt
McGowan Hugh 2nd NY Artillery Regt
McGowan James Col. Claiborne’s MS Territory Militia Regt
McGowan James Russell’s OH Militia Battalion
McGowan James Youngblood’s SC Militia Regt.
McGowan James 1st PA Militia Regt [Kennedy’s]
McGowan James 1st W. TN Militia Regt. [Napier’s]
McGowan James 3rd OH Militia Regt. [Stewart’s]
McGowan James 6th OH Militia Regt.
McGowan James 6th KY Mounted Volunteer Regt [Davenport’s]
McGowan John Fowler’s NY Detachment Sea Fencibles
McGowan John Capt. Ingersoll’s NY Command, Sea Fencibles
McGowan John 1st KY Mounted Volunteer Regt [Trotter’s]
McGowan John 1st OH Militia Regt [Williamson’s]
McGowan John 2nd W. TN Volunteer Regt. [Pillow’s]
McGowan John 2nd OH Militia Regt [Safford’s]
McGowan John 16th KY Militia Regt [Porter’s]
McGowan Michael Rayen’s OH Militia Regt
McGowan Michael 2nd OH Militia Regt [Hindman’s]
McGowan Patrick Sitcher’s NY Militia Artillery Regt
McGowan Patrick 2nd PA Militia Regt [Lotz’s]
McGowan Patrick USA Volunteer Regt
McGowan Peter Col. Claiborne’s MS Territory Militia
McGowan Phillip 3rd PA Militia Regt [LaFevre’s]
McGowan Prewett 6th MS Territory Militia Regt [Burrus’]
McGowan Robert 3rd OH Volunteer Militia Regt [Cass’]
McGowan Roger 2nd USA Volunteer Artillery Regt
McGowan Samuel 1st W. TN Militia Regt [Napier’s]
McGowan Terrence Capt. Nicholson’s MD Militia Artillery Co.
McGowan William 138th PA Militia Regt [Miller’s]
McGowen Abraham 2nd KY Mounted Volunteer Regt [Dannaldson’]
McGowen Alexander Capt. Hooks NC Cavalry Co.
McGowen Andrew 3rd OH Militia Regt [Bay’s]
McGowen Archibald 1st PA Militia Regt [Ferree’s]
McGowen Barney 9th NY Militia Regt [Joiner’s]
McGowen Daniel 41st VA Militia Regt [Bramham’s]
McGowen Denis 2nd USA Volunteer Artillery Regt
McGowen Ebeneser 2nd PA Militia Regt
McGowen Hugh 13th MS Terr. Militia Regt [Lt. Col. Nixon’s]
McGowen James Maj. Cameron’s NC Militia Command
McGowen James Col. Claiborne’s MS Territory Militia Regt
McGowen James Capt. Hook’s NC Militia Cavalry Co.
McGowen James 13th MS Terr. Militia Regt [Lt. Col. Nixon’s]
McGowen James Russell’s OH Militia Battalion
McGowen James Youngblood’s SC Militia Regt
McGowen James 2nd NY Militia Regt [Delamater’s]
McGowen James 6th OH Militia Regt
McGowen John USA Volunteer Rangers
McGowen John Capt. Stilley’s PA Militia Riflemen Co.
McGowen John 2nd TN Volunteers [Benton’s]
McGowen John 2nd OH Militia Regt [Safford’s]
McGowen John 16th PA Militia Regt
McGowen John 49th MD Militia Regt [Veazey’s]
McGowen Michael 2nd OH Militia Regt [Hindman’s]
McGowen Patrick Swift’s & Dobbin’s NY Volunteer Regt
McGowen Patrick 1st NY Volunteer Artillery Regt [Sitcher’s]
McGowen Patrick 3rd USA Volunteer Regt
McGowen Petigrew 2nd SC Militia Regt [McWillie’s]
McGowen Robert 1st LA Militia Regt [Dejan’s]
McGowen Robert 1st OH Militia Regt [Mill’s]
McGowen Roger 2nd USA Volunteer Artillery Regt
McGowen Russell 13th MS Terr. Militia Regt [Lt. Col. Nixon’s]
McGowen William 13th MS Terr. Militia Regt [Lt. Col. Nixon’s]
McGowin James Capt. Irvine’s NC Militia Co.
McGowin John 1st GA Militia Regt [Johnston’s]
McGowin Michael Rayen’s OH Militia Regt
McGowin Patrick 2nd PA Militia Regt [Lotz’s]
McGowin Roger 2nd Regt USA Volunteer Artillery
McGowin William 7th MS Militia Regt [Perkins’ Battalion]
Researchers interested in Generations priceing and in accessing the Center’s Web Site for these or any other surname should go to: http://www.sierra.com/sierrahome/familytree/records.
3) Dear Cousins
I am a descendant of Nathaniel Gowin, bc1794 VA, and Sabra Midgett Gowin, bc1796 NC, through their daughter, Hester Gowin, b1825 TN. After Sabra died, Nathaniel was remarried to Silvia Wilcox in 1862, and they produced another family, which I believe, includes John F. Gowin, bc1862; Louisa, bc1864; Mary I, bc1867, m1882 Jasper Morgan; Francis, bc1870 and Marsilla, bc1872.
Nathaniel and Silvia were enumerated in the cs1870 of Jersey County, IL. Nathaniel died there in 1879, and Silvia was named as the head of a household in cs1880 there. I would appreciate hearing from anyone who is working on this second family of Nathaniel Gowin. Martha Howard Heinrichs, 1407 Hamilton Way, San Jose, CA, 95125, 408/265-7505, email@example.com.
I wanted to pass along a piece of information I found over the weekend that might tie in to the article about George Washington Goings in the November Newsletter. In the book, “Rockingham County, NC Missing Marriage Bonds,” Vol. 3 compiled by Don Hoover I found George W. Gowins and Elizabeth Partain married September 13, 1838. This is possibly the same couple who appeared in Surry County, NC and Carroll County, VA. Other researchers please confirm. Glennie S. Goins, 1285 Webb Lp, Madison, NC, 27025, 336/286-4516, firstname.lastname@example.org.
I wanted to inform you of the death of my father, Wayne Ross Gowin, son of Lewis Oliva Gowin and Nettie Culbertson Gowin, who died January 23, 1999. His long fight with cancer is now over. Thank you for all the assistance the Foundation provided to him during the years he searched for his Gowin ancestors. Robert Wayne Gowin, 247 Sawgrass, Fayetteville, GA, 30215, 770/719-5225 GowinRob@usarc-emh2.army.mil.
Just wanted to tell you how much we enjoy the Foundation Manuscript on the Website. We haved learned so much by the vast amount of family information that has been assembled for our use online!
I am still looking for Nancy An Goins, Arlie’s g-g-g-grand-mother. Our only clues are from the family bible: William Dillard was married to Mary Jane Norris [Harris?] at the residence of “Dock Goins.” Mary Jane’s mother was Nancy An Goins. I found “Doctor Goins” in the cs1880 of Oregon Co, MO. Can anyone assemble this jigsaw puzzle? Arlie & Ionia Sipe, 2622 N. Walnut St, Tucson, AZ, 85712, 520/326-8637, email@example.com.
NOTE: The above information produced by the Gowen Research Foundation (GRF), and parts of the “Gowen Manuscript” they worked on producing. It has tons of information – much of it is correct, but be careful, some of it is not correct – so check their sources and logic. I’ve copied some of their information in the past researching my own family, only to find out there were some clear mistakes. So be sure to check the information to verify if it is right before citing the source and believing the person who researched it before was 100% correct. Most of the information I found there seems to be correct, but some is not.
Their website is: Internet: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~gowenrf
There does not seem to be anyone “manning the ship” at the Gowen Research Foundation, or Gowen Manuscript site any longer, and there is no way to contact anyone about any errors. The pages themselves don’t have a mechanism to leave a note for others to see any “new information” that you may have that shows when you find info that shows something is wrong, or when something has been verified.
Feel free to leave messages about any new information found, or errors in these pages, or information that has been verified that those who wrote these pages may not have known about.