2000 – 02 Feb Newsletter – GRF

Sections in this issue:

1) Going Family Fled South Carolina to Northwest Territory to Escape Discrimination;
2) Ohio Furnished 263,000 Soldiers and Sailors To the United States Military in WW I;
3) Napoleon Bonaparte Goings Bankrupted In Natchez; Removed to New Orleans;

All Gowen Manuscript Pages and Newsletters:   https://goyengoinggowengoyneandgone.com/gowen-research-foundation-pages-and-info/

Gowen Research Foundation Electronic Newsletter

February 2000 Volume 3 No. 2

1)  Going Family Fled South Carolina to Northwest Territory to Escape Discrimination

By Anna Going Friedman, Jaymie Friedman Frederick
and Helen Bonnie Moore
Editorial Boardmembers
3605 Debra Drive, Somerset, Kentucky, 42503
E-Mail: cfreder469@aol.com

Part IV

In the preceding installments, the Newsletter readers were introduced to a group of South Carolinians identified as “Free Negroes, Mulattoes and Mustizoes” which included Isaac Going, Levi Going, Edward Going, Sr. and Edward Going, Jr. They had joined 17 other men of Camden District in petitioning the State Legislature for a reduction in their taxes which had been doubled, only on free people of color, in 1791. Apparently the petition, which was endorsed by prominent men of Fairfield County, was denied.

The Goings and several of the 17 other men appeared on the frontier of Western Kentucky shortly afterward. Inequitable taxation and other forms of discrimination in South Carolina apparently prompted the move.

Alex C. Finley was an early-day historian in northwest Kentucky who wrote five volumes dealing with the early history and development of Western Kentucky and Middle Tennessee.

As stated earlier in this series concerning the exodus of the South Carolina tax protesters William and John Morriss, Birds, Goings, Portee and Coies to North Carolina and then on to Kentucky, Finley wrote:

“A portion of them came to near Lexington, Kentucky about the year 1795 and then about 1797 removed to Logan County and settled on the waters of Muddy River.”

Finley’s statement implies that another portion of them either stayed in North Carolina or went elsewhere. When the group left South Carolina, they did indeed leave family behind and probably the same occurred in North Carolina.

Some of the group went to Ft. Vincennes on the Wabash River in Northwest Territory circa 1797. A French fort was established there in 1702 by Francois Margane de Vincennes. It was captured by the British in 1777 and renamed Ft. Sackville. Gen. George Rogers Clark captured Ft. Sackville February 25, 1779 during the Revolutionary War for the American colonies.

On May 7th 1800, this frontier region became known as Indiana Territory which included present-day Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and part of Minnesota This territory was divided into counties with Vincennes as its capital.

Not many early documents on the Going family survived in Indiana Territory. Only bits and pieces are left to provide a glimpse into the past. In the book, “The History Of Green and Sullivan Counties, State of Indiana” is recorded a tale of “an old darkey, Canaan Goen.” “Canaan Gowen” was born in Botetourt County, Virginia about 1775. He was enlisted as a private in the Second Kentucky Regiment in the War of 1812. He fought at Detroit and in the Battle of Thames River. The Melungeon “Cannon Gowen” was enumerated in the
1830 census of Clay County, Indiana. “Canaan Goans” was married March 12, 1835, about age 60, to Susan Tucker in nearby Fountain County and was enumerated there in 1840. [Newsletter, March 1998]

The Knox County census of Indiana Territory of 1807 lists John Morris, and Randolph County lists John Gowen and William Goins. Invalid pensioners of the U.S. of 1807 include Charles Gowens [Newsletter, January 1990] at the rate of $2.50 per month, Thomas Harris at the rate of $15 per month and in 1808 Joseph Bird at the rate of $4 per month.

The book “A Guidebook to Historic Vincennes, Indiana” by Gerald Haffine contains a reference to John Morris:

“The lovely old pioneer landmark, the Maria Creek Church organized in May 1809 is soon to have a new life. It will be used as an international non-denominational chapel on the campus of Vincennes University.

The quaint brick church, abandoned in 1847, stood in a grove of shagbark hickory trees in North Knox County. Among the 13 charter members of the church were Judge William Polk trusted scout and interpreter of Gen. William Henry Harrison and later a member of the 1816 constitutional convention.

Maj. William Bruce, founder of the town of Bruceville and a friend of Abraham Lincoln, Samuel Allison for whom a township was named in Lawrence County, Illinois and John Morriss, identified only as a “man of color” in the church record were among its charter members. The old church became identified with two racial groups, the African Negroes and the American Indians, for it took a courageous stand in the defense of these people.”

The old church has been moved, rebuilt and now stands on the campus of Vincennes University and is renamed Maria Chapel. A residence hall on that campus has been named after John Morriss.”

The book by Jacqueline Cortez, “Contributions In Black and Red” states:

“Some of the earliest settlements in Indiana Territory were founded by Negro men and women. Thomas Coles of Lyle Station, Indiana was a prominent farmer. The residents of Pink Staff and Ft. Allison, Illinois can trace their ancestors as far back as 1800. They emigrated from Kentucky, South Carolina, North Carolina and Tennessee. Most of these residents are a mixture of Negro, Indian and Caucasian.

Two of the families that settled in Lawrence County around 1800 were Samuel and Frederick Allison and the family of John Morris. The Allisons were from Mason County, Kentucky and the Morris family was from Camden District in South Carolina. John Morris, the Anderson family and Austin Tan assisted Samuel Allison in building Ft. Allison. They also acted as Indian scouts around Ft. Allison. In the War Of 1812, the father of the three Anderson brothers was killed.”

Daisy Barnes, interviewed for “Contributions In Black and Red,” gives the account of her family being forced to leave North Carolina because of race hatred, of their traveling in a covered wagon and arriving in Lawrence County, Illinois at Allison Prairie, She also relates that her grandmother, a Portee was a Cherokee Indian.

Evelyn Portee Allen provided her family history relating that John and Harriet Portee came to Illinois from North Carolina by wagon train at the time of the “Trail of Tears” and that they were Cherokee Indians. Included was a picture of John and Harriet Portee and their family. They were light complexioned people, some with very fine European/Portuguese features and some resembling Indians.

In her letter she wrote about the Portee family cemetery in which her grandparents are buried and of Going family members buried there also.

The Going family accompanied the Portee and Morris families in coming to Indiana and Illinois. Not much is found on the Goings except in early census records.

“Brinkerhoff’s History of Jefferson County, Illinois” states:

“One of the first mills in Jefferson County was kept by old Billy Going, as early as 1817. He also operated a tavern and a grocery in which he kept a great many other things including bad company. His mill was only resorted to by the better class of people in the case of extreme emergency.

William Going had a bad reputation and was accused of being connected with horse thieves, counterfeiters, and other lawless characters. His tavern was the headquarters of a band who committed, as was supposed, many dark deeds.

But as the county settled up, a better class of person came in, and the lawless band who frequented Going’s Tavern were cleaned out. Their king bee, Going, was forced to leave for the good of the country.”

“Brinkerhoff’s History Of Marion County Illinois” relates an additional story about the Going family:

“From the earliest settlements of Illinois by the Americans after [Gen. George Rogers] Clark’s conquest, there has been a class of very undesirable citizens hovering on the borders near Vincennes, Shawneetown and at Cave In The Rock on the Ohio.

A regular channel by which these cutthroats and robbers conducted their nefarious barter was kept open with stations along the way, so that property stolen in the Eastern settlements was sold in the West and that stolen in Randolph and St. Clair Counties was
sold in the East at Vincennes or Shawnee town.

In 1816 an attempt to make a station at Walnut Hill for these thieves was made and several families of these undesirable people settled or rather squatted near Walnut Hill. Their neighbors soon suspected that something was wrong, as counterfeit money was put in circulation, and many mysterious strangers were seen to visit them.

Word was conveyed to the rangers of St. Clair County, who in 1819, under Captains Thomas and Bankson moved secretly to the home of the ringleader. Divided into parties of 15 men each, they quietly surrounded the cabins of the outlaws and captured them without  resistance.

The captured cutthroats were known as the Going Gang, consisting of William, John and Pleasant Going, Theophilus W. Harring, Tarleton Kane and John Bimberry and others who were not at home. The Going individuals were told that they must leave the county within a given number of days under the penalty of death!

To impress upon their minds that the edict must be obeyed, they were all lashed to saplings and given an unmerciful whipping. By the appointed time all had departed, and none ever returned.”

The above named Going men were found in the 1818 census of Illinois which places William Going in Madison County. Pleasant Going in St. Clair County and John Going in Washington County. In 1819 they were in Randolph County, and by 1820, they are all in Jefferson County.

Because of the allegations concerning the Going gang, I want to introduce to you Aaron Going, [Newsletter, March 1996] part of my family in Crittenden County, Kentucky who owned property on Camp Creek and the Ohio River which is just upstream on the opposite
bank from Cave In The Rock. Aaron drops out of sight in Kentucky in 1815 and appears on the census of 1818 in Gallatin County, Illinois. My family left Crittenden County, Kentucky in 1846-1847 with accusations of counterfeiting hanging over their heads.

Isaac Going and Edward Going from Crittenden County and Isaac Going from Logan County, Kentucky were enumerated in the 1818 Crawford County Illinois census.  Why they left Logan County is unknown. Perhaps they became homesick for the rest of the family.

The 1820 census of Crawford County, Illinois shows:

Household Householder Occupants

No. 78 Ezekiel Anderson 6
No. 86 George Anderson 3
No. 87 Jasen Goen 5
No. 88 Austin Tann 3
No. 89 Edy Cole 2
No. 90 Enock Jones 3
No. 91 Joshua Anderson 4
No. 92 Betsy Anderson 6
No. 93 John Porter 5
No. 94 Caleb Anderson 3
No. 98 Sian Morriss 4
No. 99 Edward Going 2
No. 100 Nancy Morriss 2
No. 101 John Evans 7
No. 102 Isaac Goen 8
No. 119 Lewis Goen 3
No. 468 Isaac Goen 4

It is interesting to note that all but Evans and Tann are signatures on Petition No. 164 back in South Carolina. Lewis Goen, No. 119 and Isaac Goen, No. 468 are recorded as “Free People of Color.” Edward and Isaac Going had rejoined the family. At last, in part the Logan County, Kentucky and the Vincennes, Indiana groups had rejoined.

In Part V to come, perhaps fact can be distinguished from fiction.

[To Be Continued]

2)  Ohio Furnished 263,000 Soldiers and Sailors To the United States Military in World War I

Ohio was originally settled by military men, veterans of the Revolutionary War from New England.  The Revolutionaries made the first permanent settlement in the Northwest Territory at Marietta, Ohio in 1788, and ever after Ohio generously furnished men for the nation’s battles.

In the Civil War, Ohio loyally supported the Union, furnishing 319, 659 for the U.S. Army.

In World War I, more than 263,000 Ohioans, out of a population of 3,000,000 answered the call to the colors, according to “Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors and Marines in the World War, 1917-1918.” Originally compiled in 1926, the volume provides detailed information about those inducted which family historians find beneficial to their research. It provides places of birth, location and date of enlistment, city of residence, date of discharge, units of service and war theatres and engagements.

Of interest to Foundation researchers are 14 officers and enlisted men:

Capt. Maurice R. Gowing was born April 11, 1894 in Toledo, Ohio. His residence at the time of enlistment was at Columbus, Ohio. He served as a 2nd lieutenant in the Coast Artillery Corps at Ft. Monroe, Virginia from November 5, 1917. He became a 1st lieutenant February 15, 1918 and captain July 24, 1918. In 1919 he served at Ft. Williams, Maine and Ft. Levett, Maine. His resignation was accepted September 1, 1919.

Capt. William A. Gowing was born in Allendale, Missouri November 12, 1871. He enlisted September 20, 1918 from Toledo, Ohio and served as a doctor in the Army Medical Corps in Michigan. He was discharged December 3, 1918 and returned to his practice in Toledo.

Albert Goins, colored was born April 7, 1887 in Winnsboro, South Carolina. He was enlisted
August 23, 1918 from Cincinnati and served in the 814th Pioneer Infantry Regiment as a private. He went overseas in the American Expeditionary Force October 6, 1918. He was promoted to private first class June 1, 1919 and was discharged July 28, 1919.

Bud K. Goins, colored was born November 4, 1895 in Pomeroy, Ohio. He was enlisted from
Athens, Ohio August 9, 1918 and was assigned to the 18th Infantry Battalion. He was discharged January 27, 1919 as a sergeant.

Charles A. Goins, colored was born in 1897 at Zanesville, Ohio. He was enlisted November 8, 1917 and assigned to Company B, 304th Stevedore Regiment. He was promoted to private first class December 3, 1917. On January 3, 1918, he was transferred to the 304th Service Battalion where he was promoted to sergeant February 2, 1918. He served overseas from January 13, 1918. He was reduced back to private May 13, 1919 and received an honorable discharge June 26, 1919.

Gus Goins, white was born in Frankfort, Kentucky March 4, 1890. He enlisted June 27,
1918 from Toledo and was assigned to the 6th Training Battalion. He served in the 158th Depot Brigade until July 16, 1918. He was transferred to Company B, 309th Ammunition Train and joined the American Expeditionary Forces September 17, 1918. He was promoted to corporal November 9, 1918 and honorably discharged February 14, 1919.

James Goins, colored, was born in Cuthbert, Georgia in 1892. He was enlisted from Columbus October 28, 1917. He was assigned to Company B, 317th Engineers. His unit joined the AEF June 10, 1918 and participated in the Meuse-Argonne battle where he was “severely wounded” November 11, 1918 [Armistice Day], He returned from France February 12, 1919 and was honorably discharged March 15, 1919.

James W. Goins, white, regarded as a brother to Gus Goins, was born August 9, 1887 in
Frankford, Kentucky. He was enlisted from Toledo July 15, 1918 and was assigned to Company I, 335th Infantry Regiment. He was honorably discharged December 9, 1918.

Jesse T. Goins, white, was born August 9, 1887 at Sekitan, Ohio. He was enlisted July
25, 1918 at Ft. Thomas, Kentucky. He was assigned to the Coast Artillery Corps at Ft.
Screven, Georgia until September 6, 1918. On that date he was transferred to Battery C,
45th Artillery Battalion which was assigned to the AEF. He went overseas October 21, 1919 and was returned January 31, 1919. He received an honorable discharge February 12, 1919.

Samuel J. Goins, white, was born in 1888 at Versailles, Kentucky. He was enlisted June 5,
1917 at Columbus Barracks, Ohio. He was made private first class August 1, 1917 and corporal September 1, 1917. He was assigned to Company A, 10th Field Signal Battalion and
went overseas with his unit October 29, 1918 as a sergeant. On December 24, 1918, he was  transferred to 56th Service Company, Signal Corps. He returned home July 29, 1919 and
was honorably discharged August 7, 1919.

William M. Goins, white, was born in 1893 at Midway, Kentucky. He was enlisted June 5,
1917 from Akron and assigned to Company A, 10th Field Signal Battalion, along with Samuel J. Goins. He became a private first class August 1, 1917, corporal September 1, 1917 and sergeant March 1, 1918. On October 29, 1918 they went overseas with Company C, 116th Field Signal Battalion. On December 24, 1918, they transferred to the 56th Service Company, Signal Corps, AEF. They were returned home July 29, 1919 and honorably discharged August 7, 1919.

Murphy H. Goins, colored, was born at Carthage, North Carolina in 1894. He was enlisted at Columbus Barracks December 5, 1917 and assigned to Company A, 313rd Service Battalion. He became a sergeant March 6, 1918 and was reduced to private first class April 8, 1918 while with the AEF. He was returned home June 25, 1919 and honorably discharged July 1, 1919.

3)  Napoleon Bonaparte Goings Bankrupted In Natchez; Removed to New Orleans

Napoleon Bonaparte Goings, “free colored person” on December 14, 1835 paid $5,000 for E.
Miller’s Store in Natchez, Mississippi. Later he took bankruptcy, and the store was sold for the benefit of his creditors. He lived in Vicksburg, Mississippi in 1838. Later it was reported that he removed to New Orleans, Louisiana.

In 1890, “Georgiana Goins, widow of Napoleon” was listed in the city directory of New Orleans, living at 431 Poydras. In the 1891 city directory, “Georgiana Goins, widow of
Napoleon” reappeared, still living at 431½ Poydras.


Died in Holland . . .

John James “Johnny” McGowan died April 14, 2000 in in Utrecht, Holland, according to his obituary in “Overlijdensberichten, Utrechts Nieuwsblad.”

==Dear Cousins==

I am searching for information on Milton Goin, bc1862 in Campbell County, TN. He was married 1885, wife’s name, Sarea Louise. He died January 21, 1843 in Albion, Nebraska. I think his father was James Goin who was born July 5, 1845 in Campbell County. Does anyone have any information on these individuals?

Phyllis Prock

==Dear Cousins==

My name is Calvin Goings. I am a member of the Washington State Senate. I recently began researching my family history. Unfortunately I have hit a roadblock. My earliest ancestor is David Goings who was married October 30, 1803 in Giles County, VA. Any suggestions or information you might have would be sincerely appreciated.

Calvin Goings
South Hill, WA, 98373
Senate Webpage: http://www.leg.wa.gov/senate/sdc

==Dear Cousins==

A friend of mine has an album of old photos that her mother-in-law found at a sale and didn’t want to see tossed out. There is a message “presented by Fannie Titcomb W. Enright, Christmas 1867” on one picture. A photographer from San Francisco took some of the photos. Other names in the album are Edward Gowan, Kate Gowan, 13 October 1867; Thomas Horan, August 1869.

Bonnie Elsten

==Dear Cousins==

I have some blanks in my Gowin research that I would like to have some help with.

I have Samuel Gowin who was bc1816 TN, dp1900 TX. (He is said to have died in Rains Co, TX and is supposedly buried in Dunbar Cemetery there. No one has been able to prove this, nor find the grave site).

He married first a Polly Woods in 1938 in Jefferson Co, AL. They were living in Chickasaw Co, MS in 1850 with children: Felicity J, 10; Nancy, 9; Francis A, ; Benjamin F, ; William Henry Harrison, ; and Samuel’s sister, Catherine Goin, 14 bTN. All of the children of Samuel and Polly (Mary b. AL) were bMS.

My great-grandmother, Mary E. Gowin, was born to them in 1857 in MS. I can’t find them in the 1860 census, but there was a son, James Richard Clay Gowin born to them in AR on July 7, 1861.

I don’t know what happened to Polly (Polly when she married Samuel–Mary in the census), I cannot find where she died. But I suspect she may have died in childbirth with James Richard Clay Gowin or soon after.

In 1863, Samuel was married to Martha Roland in Hot Springs, AR. They had (from what I can tell) four children. Martha, Lucinda, Melissa Belle (who later married John Quincy Adams, a Choctaw Indian), and a twin brother to Melissa Belle that I don’t have a name for.

They were living in Van Zandt Co, TX in the 1870 and 1880 census. Mary E. Gowin married Robert A. Sharp there January 11, 1883. She told the elder aunts in the family that Robert Sharp had “married her straight off the reservation.” Their children were: Ola, Alonzo, Lonnie, Robert T, William Pinkney (my mother’s father), Samuel and Pugsey.

Robert and Mary eventually moved to Henderson CO. TX (where Robert was supposedly jumped and beaten to death over $35.00 after the sale of a bale of cotton said to have been about 1917). Mary was said to have moved to Kaufman, TX to live near her children and
died there of pneumonia at an old age.

I have some ideas as to who Samuel’s father was from the Foundation data. But, no proof. Actually there are a couple of prospects, Benjamin Gowen and James Goins in Jefferson County, AL. Can anyone fill in some blanks for me?

Shirley Hardee
74 Sunny Gap Road
Conway, AR, 72032



NOTE:  The above information produced by the Gowen Research Foundation (GRF), and parts of the “Gowen Manuscript” they worked on producing.  It has tons of information – much of it is correct, but be careful, some of it is not correct – so check their sources and logic.  I’ve copied some of their information in the past researching my own family, only to find out there were some clear mistakes.   So be sure to check the information to verify if it is right before citing the source and believing the person who researched it before was 100% correct.  Most of the information I found there seems to be correct, but some is not.

Their website is:  Internet: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~gowenrf

There does not seem to be anyone “manning the ship” at the Gowen Research Foundation, or Gowen Manuscript site any longer, and there is no way to contact anyone about any errors.   The pages themselves don’t have a mechanism to leave a note for others to see any “new information” that you may have that shows when you find info that shows something is wrong, or when something has been verified.

Feel free to leave messages about any new information found, or errors in these pages, or information that has been verified that those who wrote these pages may not have known about.

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