1996 – 11 Nov Newsletter – GRF

Sections in this issue:

1) Prentiss Lewis Goen Survived Hand-to-Paw Combat With a Grizzly Bear;
2) Natchitoches Research Meeting Links Red Bones to Melungeons;
3) Dear Cousins;
4) Prentiss Lewis Goen, Continued;
5) Melungeons, Continued.

All Gowen Manuscript Pages and Newsletters:   https://goyengoinggowengoyneandgone.com/gowen-research-foundation-pages-and-info/

GOWEN RESEARCH FOUNDATION NEWSLETTER
Volume 8, No. 3 November 1996

1)  Prentiss Lewis Goen Survived Hand-to-Paw Combat With a Grizzly Bear.

The account of the terrifying battle that Prentiss Lewis Goen fought with a grizzly in the California Mariposa Mountains in 1850 first appeared in the “Cleburne [TX] Tribune” in 1881, and excerpts are reprinted now, 115 years later, through the courtesy of a kinsman and Foundation Member Paul Lynn Goen of Albuquerque, New Mexico.

“On the 5th day of March, 1850, I was in the mountains of Mariposa, engaged in digging gold and packing mules to carry freight from Stockton to Mariposa. As a diversion, one of my associates suggested a deer hunt. I obtained my rifle, a single shot model, and we departed to the wilderness. After making camp and hobbling our mules, I made my way up to the summit of a mountain, when suddenly I discovered a little bunch of deer.

I shot one through the heart and reloaded as rapidly as possible, eager to get a second shot. The deer had run around a thicket to ascend a ravine, and I ran through the thicket and found they had become suddenly frightened at a grizzly bear, which I soon encountered.

I made a sudden halt to take a second shot at the deer when I found that I was within four feet of the largest grizzly I ever laid eyes on. He was lying in his bed, but he stood up, eight feet tall, and made right at me, with the most hideous growling that could be heard for miles. I at once threw my gun on him, and the bear commenced to circle around me. I reserved my shot, hoping he would make a dash at the muzzle of my gun when I would fire into mouth. But this he declined to do and continued to circle about 40 feet away.

Finally I fired, but, oh my God, I missed. My ball only inflicted a slight wound in his face. At the crack of the gun, he fell to the ground and rolled over, but quickly sprang to his feet and made at me. My gun was presented at him, and he ran against the muzzle and pushed me back some 15 feet or more. By this time, with no opportunity to reload, I saw it was to be a life or death struggle, and I made up my mind to sell out as deadly as possible. Then he made another charge to finish me . . . ”

Prentiss Lewis Goen, son of Dillard Goen and Permelia Goen, was born January 13, 1825 in Greenville District, South Carolina. His family removed to Georgia, and when Lewis Goen attained the age of 17, he went out on his own and removed to Monroe County, Mississippi.

“Taking the California gold fever in 1849, at the age of 24, he struck out in the company of about 40 other adventurers to seek his fortune in search of gold.

During his trip horseback across the plains of Texas and New Mexico, he encountered a severe sandstorm, and for several days, experienced much suffering for water. Upon reaching water, one of the travelers quickly drank all the water he desired and was soon dead. Lewis Goen was wiser and with his head near the water, he allowed his tongue, that was swollen out of his mouth, to slowly return to normal with the occasional sip of water to relieve the extreme thirst.”

After arriving at the California gold fields, he became one of the lucky ones. After five years of digging, he had accumulated a “mule load” of gold nuggets. Recalling the hardships of crossing the American wilderness, he elected to return home aboard ship. He took a sailing vessel to Panama, walked across the Isthmus, and caught another ship bound for New Orleans. From there he went to Mississippi to see his mother who did not immediately recognize him, after a 13-year absence. After a short visit, he returned to Greenville County to visit friends and family before heading to Texas where he spent the rest of his life.

The account of Prentiss Lewis Goen continues:

“As the grizzly moved in for the kill, I clubbed my gun and let him have it with all my strength over the head, and this I repeated over and over from time to time, but never could knock him down. I think he weighed at least a thousand pounds, but I tell you he could handle himself with the agility of a cat.

In this mortal combat we had fought for sixty yards or more down the steep mountain. I had already bent my gun, but I finally succeeded in dealing him a fearful blow over the nose. This seemed to be more effectual, as he backed his ears and ran off 40 yards, and I believe if I had not hollered then, he would not have returned.

But he did return, and seemingly to renew the fight with redoubled fury. I then struck him with all my strength hoping to force him to give up the fight, but the grizzly dodged my stroke, and the end of my gun struck the ground plowing up the soil several inches, and the gun dropped from my hand and rolled some 15 or 20 steps down the mountain. We both took after it, the grizzly in front. I made a grab at the gun, but missed it six inches. The grizzly was too close. I then picked up a rock and hit him in the face, and he shut his eyes. I thought then that my only chance to save my life was in flight, but I had only gotten about 30 feet when he made a spring and caught me.

In his effort to catch me around the neck, one of his tusks struck my left shoulder, went through my coat and two shirts, inflicting a wound on my neck, threw me to the ground and broke my right hand. The bear was coming with such force that he passed on over me and fell in a tree top and broke the trunk of the tree which was at least nine inches in diameter. I was knocked almost senseless, but I arose as quickly as possible and started down the steep mountain, making frequently 25 to 30 feet at a bound, and alighting on my heels, so great was the descent.

The grizzly outran me, but I would dodge to one side as he would get near me, and while he was checking up to pursue me, I would gain in distance. Finally I ran right up to the brink of a sudden break off the mountain, the brute right behind me in pursuit. I jumped suddenly to one side, hoping he was coming with such rapidity that he would be precipitated down the mountain, but my foot struck a rolling stone which threw me to the ground.

My breath was almost entirely exhausted. I thought I could run no longer. Then I tried to roll down the mountain, but I only rolled about 40 feet when my face struck a stone, inflicting a severe wound from which the blood spouted. I soon found that rolling would not do, as the grizzly, which could easily clear 30 feet or more down the mountain, would gain too rapidly on me. I started again to run, and as the bear got near me, I would dodge to the right or left, but I had only got a short distance from which I had tried to roll down the mountain when I fell to my knees, and the bear lit just a few feet from me. Then I gave it up. I was completely exhausted. I threw my hands up and gave a faint scream as I threw a little stone in his face. The grizzly stood still for a moment, and looking me straight in the face as he pitched one ear forward and then the other. He seemed to become all at once frightened and ran off about 40 yards.

Then I thought, O my God, if screaming would do any good I would try it again. I raised my hands and again screamed. The bear started up the mountain and got perhaps 60 yards and stopped. Again with uplifted hands, I screamed with all my power. The bear broke off again and continued to run 400 yards or more up the mountain, until it passed out of sight.” I retrieved my battered rifle and made my painful way back to camp, bloody from head to foot.

The gun used by Lewis Goen, in his fight with the grizzly was a blue steel barreled single shot rifle. The scars and scratches made by the teeth of the bear are still plainly visible on the gun which is now in the possession of a grat-grandson, Wilson Lewis who resides in San Antonio, Texas.”

Prentiss Lewis Goen was married October 27, 1853 to Elizabeth Quinn. She died in 1868 in Johnson County, Texas, and on December 3, 1868, Prentiss Lewis Goen was remarried to Emily Virginia Lane, according to Bosque County Marriage Book 1, page 141. Emily Virginia Lane was born in Texas about 1846. She is regarded as the daughter of James Addison Lane and his wife, Matilda Wilson Lane in Kopperl, Texas. The Lane family lived as neighbors to the Goen family in Georgia.

Prentiss Lewis Goen hauled lumber, seasoned oak and poplar, by oxteam from Houston, 225 miles away, in the rain and mud to build their home. The original colonial-style home featured four tall columns on the front porch of the 7-room home that was one and a half stories high.

Prentiss Lewis Goen died February 18, 1880 at age 58 and was buried beside his first wife in Grandview Cemetery. “Emily V. Goin” died in Johnson County, February 26, 1930, 50 years after the death of her husband, according to Texas BVS File 9143.

Children born to Prentiss Lewis Goen and Elizabeth Quinn Goen include:

Mary Addie Goen born about 1855
Prentiss Mariposa Goen born about 1856
Florida Agnes Goen born about 1859
Lewis Granville Goen born about 1860
Elizabeth Lewis “Lulu” Goen born in 1863
William Stanford Goen born about 1866
Thomas Howell Goen born about 1867

Children born to Prentiss Lewis Goen and Emily Virginia Lane Goen include:

Christopher Columbus “Lum” Goen born about 1869
Joel Addison Goen born about 1872
John Henry Goen born about 1874
Annie Lee Goen born about 1875
George Jefferson Goen born in August 1876
Carroll George Goen born about 1877
Clara Idella Goen born in Nov. 1878
Lillie Emily Goen born in Nov. 1880

 

2)  Natchitoches Research Meeting Links Red Bones to Melungeons

By Evelyn McKinley Orr
Chairman, Melungeon Research Team

After forming our Melungeon Research Team in 1990, the Foundation received queries about possible Melungeon connections to the Sabines or Redbones who settled in Western Louisiana and Eastern Texas. In early 1991, I confirmed mi-gration patterns and some surnames, the Going name among them. I had three interviews verifying that the Goings, Nashes and others came to the “No Mans Land” of Louisiana around 1800 from the Carolinas. I found some reluctance to discuss the names Redbone and Sabine, and there was scant information about them.

Two of those interviewed felt the Red Bones were mostly Native American. I attended the “Founders of Natchitoches” conference in October in Natchitoches, Louisiana, where Dr. N. Brent Kennedy presented some possible origins of the Melungeons. The Founders Of Natchitoches, Inc. was founded by descendants of 1719 Spanish and French settlers.

Dr. Tommy Johnson, a retired professor of North Western State University in Natchitoches, found some of his Redbone ancestor surnames in Dr. Kennedy’s book and was instrumental in bringing Dr. Kennedy to speak. It was exciting to learn that family genealogists are discovering their Redbone ancestors, and finding each other to share research.

A wine and cheese book-signing party was held in the Old Town Book Store Friday evening. Debra Ortego, owner of this unique and diversified store, had Dr. Kennedy’s book, “The Melungeons, The Resurrection of a Proud People,” in stock as well as Jean Bible’s 1975 “Melungeons Yesterday,” Bonnie Ball’s “Melungeons, Their Origins and Kin,” and the fascinating Appalachian Melungeon fiction story, “Daughters of the Legend,” by Jesse Stuart. Orders are made by calling 318-357-8900. The evening was a gala affair as strangers from several states greeted each other as kindred. The Melungeon research does this to you.

Mayor Sampite joined us and presented Dr. Kennedy with the visiting dignitary award. Inquires were made from “Going” descendants about Gowen Research Foundation. There were two or three in the audience with symptoms of Mediterranean diseases such as Sarcoidosis, Thalassemia, Machado-Joseph [Azorean Disease] and Breheet’s Syndrome.

One person was recently diagnosed with Sarcoidosis and another very sick lady with mysterious symptoms discovered, there may be help! The mystery of why so many unusual diseases in the southeast and southern states is unraveling as medical and genetic specialists continue to bring in evidence.

Book vendors displayed books and booklets about the heritage of the surrounding area and also Melungeon books. I recommend the small book, containing research done by Webster Talma Crawford published about 1932, entitled, “The Cherry Winche Country.” The book was edited by Don C. Marlar and Jane P. McManus, Dogwood Press, Rt. 2 Box 3270, Woodville, Texas, 75979, telephone 409/837-5519, $6.95.

The book includes descriptions of the areas along the Rio Sabinas country where the Redbones settled, ideas for their origins, and an eye witness report of “The Westport Fight” which took place in December of 1881. The fight was between a group of Redbones and white settlers wanting to settle in their territory. The Redbones won.

Among his conclusions for their origins are, “It seems almost a forgone conclusion that these bold people were of Mediter-ranean stock from coastal vessels in West Indian or Brazilian trade. All the mystery peoples of the America appear to bear the stamp of Mediterranean stock. It is clear then that the Redbones cannot be merely half-breeds; they are fractional breeds with different denomination for every mother’s son of them.”

I learned in 1991, that many nationalities, including ones brought in by pirates, made up the population of the “No Mans Land.” From the Crawford writings we learn that the general locations of the Red Bone or Sabine River Redbone settlements were between the Quelqueshoe and Sabine Rivers near Natchitoches. There were three Redbone communities within “No Mans Land.” The largest was in the Cherry Winche country that lies directly south of the old inland town of Hinston, but across the Quelqueshoe River. A second one was located in Newton County, Texas, near the Sabine River, and a third was on Bearhead Creek in Beauregard and Calcasieu Parishes in Western Louisiana. Data I have at this time suggest that some Redbones of the Carolinas migrated to Western Louisiana between 1790 and the early 1800s.

Dr. Kennedy’s revised and updated book, which contains the Ottoman Turk research, is now scheduled to be on the market by December. Call 1-800/468-3412 to order. On October 12 and 13 some 70 visitors from Ceseme, Turkey, sister city to Wise, Virginia, were in Wise for their Fall Festival. The Turkish government is so convinced of the similarities between the early Ottoman Turks and our Appalachian Melungeons that they have renamed a mountain near the Aegean Sea, “Melungeon,” meaning “cursed soul” in Turkish.

Every new map will carry that name. Original Turkish spelling was Melunjan/Malunjan. Many early Turk Levant “sailors” certainly were cursed souls as they left their homelands never to return. It would seem proper to rename this mountain for these young men as their families watched them sail away from atop this mountain. I reported some time back that Turkish scholar, Dr. Zakiriya Kursun, was researching similarities between Ottoman Turks and American southeast Indians long before we discovered a possible “Turk” connection. His works have recently been published in Turkish. Sometime in the future an English version may be published.

Besides the many similar culture traits, a large number of linguistic similarities were found, Examples; Alabama–in Turkish, Allah bamya means where shamed blood lives; Powhatan–Pohotan means Cruel Leader; Croatoan, the name carved on Roanoke Island Lost Colony–Croatan meaning the Croatian people, [Croatians may have been among the liberated Turks believed to have been found on Roanoke Island by Sir Francis Drake in 1586]: Allegheny-Allah genis meaning God’s vastness; Satz–old Appalachian Melungeon term for watch-saat meaning watch in Turkish.

It may be impossible for the individual family researcher to positively identify the heritage of his mystery ancestors. The study has developed into an unorthodox genealogical study. First, we have to unravel the heritage of the very early “mystery” peoples on our shores.

Evidence has led us into identifying the heritages of people that were never believed to have been in America. If our research proves accurate, there is no way we can document these heritages in American records. Some may have been here as early as the 1500s, and identifying the surnames of the women would be especially difficult here or in old world records.

Colonial social customs and laws would help cloud the iden-tity of heritages listed on our records. One example: “Laws of Virginia,” Vol. III, by William Waller Hening, Chapter V, p252, defines who shall be called mulattoes. “Be it enacted and declared, That the child of an Indian and the child, grand-child, or great-grandchild, of a Negro shall be deemed, ac-counted, held and taken to be a mulatto.”

Progressive minded scholars from the academic fields of anthropology, history, genetics, medicine, ethnology, archeology, and linguistics have contributed to Dr. Kennedy’s research. Evidence continues to come in showing that a culture of dark skinned peoples with traits different from the Negro, Indian or Anglo were here. Earlier scholars may not have been aware of the existence of some who may have been here before Jamestown. If we are serious about exact, accurate heritages then the contributions of these scholars are an essential part of this research. Their contributions will also help the individual researcher decide if their mystery ancestor has a connection to these people. People of all nationalities are dis-covering that they may have the genes of these mystery people.

Maybe this is why the search is so exciting, because it could help tie us all together.

3)  Dear Cousins

I finally got on the Internet, and now it’s hard to get me off. Two ayem is becoming my bedtime, and I still don’t want to quit then. So many places to research and so little time! Also E-mail is a great shortcut to “snailmail” and a whole lot cheaper. I will send our research progress reports on Thomas Goin/Gowen and descendants by E-mail to interested Foundation members. Give me your E-mail address, and I will add you to my electronic mailing list. Dianne Stark Thurman, 4201 Wildflower Circle, Wichita, KS, 67210, 316/529-0438, dst@southwind.net.

==Dear Cousins==

If you are interested in Powhatan Indians, check out the home page of the contemporary Mattaponi Indians in Virginia at http://www.whro.org/bl/Mattaponi. Theirs is one of the oldest reservations in the U.S, being established in 1635 by the English and surviving to this day. The page is in its infancy, but will be expanding soon. The tribe is in the process of computerizing many of its old records that may in time be of use to genealogists. You can visit them at West Point, VA in King William County. Charles Stallard cstallar@pen.k12.va.us.

==Dear Cousins==

I am searching for the ancestors of my ggf William Thomas Goin, bc1838 KY of parents born in GA, according to cs1900 of Oklahoma. He was married to Elizabeth Ann Cannon c1867 in Arlington, TX in Dallas Co. Their ch. were William Arthur Goin & Willis Oscar Goin, twins, b1871; James Hunter Goin, b1873; my gm Anna Belle Goin, b1876 and Walter L. Goin, b1880. Your assistance is solicited. Jim Young, Rt3, Box 329A, McAlester, OK, 74501, myoung@icok.net.

==Dear Cousins==

The Foundation Website is getting rave reviews from all over. Congratulations for an outstanding Home Page as well as an award-winning Newsletter. June Smith, 5307 Hwy. 303 NE, #22, Bremerton, WA, 98311, BoJu2325@aol.com.

==Dear Cousins==

Of interest to those who enjoyed Paul Heinegg’s book, “Free African-Americans of North Carolina and Virginia,” will be an upcoming book by Gloria Holbrook. She is of Lumbee descent and has spent a great deal of time on old colonial records for Native American ancestry. She has gathered a lot of proof that the “free colored persons” that Heinegg and others have so reaily classified as free Negroes or mixed Native American/Negroes were in fact “full-blooded” Native Americans. She has found colonial records describing the native children, their Indian names, ages, etc and which family they were given to for “teaching Christianity” and their “Christian names.” Anyone with Lumbee ancestry, Robeson County, NC ancestry or surnames in common should obtain the book. I think it is going to turn some of the stereotypes upside down. Heinegg did a wonderful work, and his book is a bible for finding family genealogies. I think, however, that he, like many other researchers, took written records and felt they had to be the gospel truth. Deborah L. Woolf, 2380 NW Montgomery Dr, Redmon, OR, 97756, SYBL26A@prodigy.com.

==O==

I recently received the location on the Internet of the 1624 census of Virginia, pertaining to Jamestown and environs, population 1,033. The census has been alphabetized, and it is easy to determine if your family was there. The lengthy address: ftp://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/va/jamestown/census/1624cens.txt. Mary K. Goodyear, Box 70, Shauck, OH, 43349-0070, 419/362-7782.

4)  Prentiss Lewis Goen, Continued

“As the grizzly moved in for the kill, I clubbed my gun and let him have it with all my strength over the head, and this I repeated over and over from time to time, but never could knock him down. I think he weighed at least 1,000 pounds, but he could handle himself like a cat.

In this mortal combat we had fought for sixty yards or more down the steep mountain. I had already bent my gun, but I finally succeeded in dealing him a fearful blow over the nose. This seemed to be more effectual, as he backed his ears and ran off 40 yards, and I believe if I had not hollered then, he would not have returned.

But he did return, and seemingly to renew the fight with redoubled fury. I then struck him with all my strength hoping to force him to give up the fight, but the grizzly dodged my stroke, and the end of my gun struck the ground, plowing up the soil, and the gun dropped from my hand and rolled down the mountain. I made a grab at the gun, but missed it six inches. The grizzly was too close. I then picked up a rock and hit him in the face, and he shut his eyes. I thought then that my only chance to save my life was in flight, but I had only gotten about 30 feet when he made a spring and caught me.

In his effort to catch me around the neck, one of his tusks struck my left shoulder, went through my coat and two shirts, inflicting a wound on my neck, threw me to the ground and broke my right hand. The bear was coming with such force that he passed on over me and fell in a tree top and broke the trunk of the tree which was at least nine inches in diameter. I was knocked almost senseless, but I arose quickly and started down the steep mountain.

The grizzly outran me, but I would dodge to one side as he would get near me, and while he was checking up to pursue me, I would gain in distance. Finally I ran right up to the brink of a sudden break off the mountain, the brute right behind me in pursuit. I jumped suddenly to one side, hoping he was coming with such rapidity that he would be precipitated down the mountain, but my foot struck a rolling stone which threw me to the ground.

My breath was almost entirely exhausted. I thought I could run no longer. Then I tried to roll down the mountain, but I only rolled about 40 feet when my face struck a stone, inflicting a severe wound from which the blood spouted. I soon found that rolling would not do, as the grizzly, which could easily clear 30 feet or more down the mountain, would gain too rapidly on me. I started again to run, and as the bear got near me, I would dodge to the right or left, but I had only got a short distance from which I had tried to roll down the mountain when I fell to my knees, and the bear lit just a few feet from me. Then I gave it up. I was completely exhausted. I threw my hands up and gave a faint scream as I threw a little stone in his face. The grizzly stood still for a moment, and looking me straight in the face as he pitched one ear forward and then the other. He seemed to become all at once frightened and ran off about 40 yards.

Then I thought, O my God, if screaming would do any good I would try it again. I raised my hands and again screamed. The bear started up the mountain and got perhaps 60 yards and stopped. Again with uplifted hands, I screamed with all my power. The bear broke off again and continued to run 400 yards or more up the mountain, until it passed out of sight. I retrieved my battered rifle and made my way to camp, bloody from head to foot.”

Prentiss Lewis Goen was married October 27, 1853 to Elizabeth Quinn. She died in 1868 in Johnson County, Texas, and on December 3, 1868, Prentiss Lewis Goen was remarried to Emily Virginia Lane, according to Bosque County Marriage Book 1. He died February 18, 1880 at age 58 and was buried beside his first wife in Grandview Cemetery. “Emily V. Goin” died in Johnson County, February 26, 1930, 50 years after the death of her husband, according to Texas BVS File 9143.

Children born to Prentiss Lewis Goen and Elizabeth Quinn Goen include:

Mary Addie Goen born about 1855
Prentiss Mariposa Goen born about 1856
Florida Agnes Goen born about 1859
Lewis Granville Goen born about 1860
Elizabeth Lewis “Lulu” Goen born in 1863
William Stanford Goen born about 1866
Thomas Howell Goen born about 1867

Children born to Prentiss Lewis Goen and Emily Virginia Lane Goen include:

Christopher Columbus “Lum” Goen born about 1869
Joel Addison Goen born about 1872
John Henry Goen born about 1874
Annie Lee Goen born about 1875
George Jefferson Goen born in August 1876
Carroll George Goen born about 1877
Clara Idella Goen born in Nov. 1878
Lillie Emily Goen born in Nov. 1880

Emily Virginia Lane was born in Texas about 1846. She is regarded as the daughter of James Addison Lane and his wife, Matilda Wilson Lane in Kopperl, Texas. The Lane family lived as neighbors to the Goen family in Georgia.

Prentiss Lewis Goen hauled lumber, seasoned oak and poplar, by oxteam from Houston, 225 miles away, in the rain and mud to build their home. The original colonial-style home featured four tall columns on the front porch of the 7-room home that was one and a half stories high.

5)  Melungeons, Continued

Debra Ortego, owner of this unique and diversified store, had Dr. Kennedy’s book, “The Melungeons, The Resurrection of a Proud People,” in stock as well as Jean Bible’s 1975 “Melungeons Yesterday,” Bonnie Ball’s “Melungeons, Their Origins and Kin,” and the fascinating Appalachian Melungeon fiction story, “Daughters of the Legend,” by Jesse Stuart. Orders are made by calling 318-357-8900. The evening was a gala affair as strangers from several states greeted each other as kindred. The Melungeon research does this to you.

Mayor Sampite joined us and presented Dr. Kennedy with the visiting dignitary award. Inquires were made from “Going” descendants about Gowen Research Foundation. There were two or three in the audience with symptoms of Mediterranean diseases such as Sarcoidosis, Thalassemia, Machado-Joseph [Azorean Disease] and Breheet’s Syndrome.

One person was recently diagnosed with Sarcoidosis and another very sick lady with mysterious symptoms discovered, there may be help! The mystery of why so many unusual diseases in the southeast and southern states is unraveling as medical and genetic specialists continue to bring in evidence.

Book vendors displayed books and booklets about the heritage of the surrounding area and also Melungeon books. I recom-mend the small book, containing research done by Webster Talma Crawford published about 1932, entitled, “The Cherry Winche Country.” The book was edited by Don C. Marlar and Jane P. McManus, Dogwood Press, Rt. 2 Box 3270, Woodville, Texas, 75979, telephone 409/837-5519, $6.95.

The book includes descriptions of the areas along the Rio Sabinas country where the Redbones settled, ideas for their origins, and an eye witness report of “The Westport Fight” which took place in December of 1881. The fight was between a group of Redbones and white settlers wanting to settle in their territory. The Redbones won.

Printing has been completed on Dr. Kennedy’s revised and updated book, which contains the Ottoman Turk research and updated medical research. Call 1-800/468-3412 to order.

(To Be Continued)

==Dear Cousins==

Of interest to those who enjoyed Paul Heinegg’s book, “Free African-Americans of North Carolina and Virginia,” will be an upcoming book by Gloria Holbrook. She is of Lumbee descent and has spent a grat deal of time on old colonial records for Native American ancestry. She has gathered a lot of proof that the “free colored persons” that Heinegg and others have so reaily classified as free Negroes or mixed Native American/Negroes were in fact “full-blooded” Native Americans. She has found colonial records describing the native children, their Indian names, ages, etc and which family they were given to for “teaching Christianity” and their “Christian names.” Anyone with Lumbee ancestry, Robeson County, NC ancestry or surnames in common should obtain the book.

I think it is going to turn some of the stereotypes upside down. Heinegg did a wonderful work, and his book is a bible for finding family genealogies. I think, however, that he, like many other researchers, took written records and felt they had to be the gospel truth. Deborah L. Woolf, 2380 NW Montgomery Dr, Redmon, OR, 97756, SYBL26A@prodigy.com.

==O==

I recently received the location on the Internet of the 1624 census of Virginia, pertaining to Jamestown and environs, population 1,033. The census has been alphabetized, and it is easy to determine if your family was there. The lengthy address: ftp://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/va/jamestown/census/1624cens.txt. Mary K. Goodyear, Box 70, Shauck, OH, 43349-0070, 419/362-7782.

Among his conclusions for their origins are, “It seems almost a forgone conclusion that these bold people were of Mediter-ranean stock from coastal vessels in West Indian or Brazilian trade. All the mystery peoples of the America appear to bear the stamp of Mediterranean stock. It is clear then that the Redbones cannot be merely half-breeds; they are fractional breeds with different denomination for every mother’s son of them.”

I learned in 1991, that many nationalities, including ones brought in by pirates, made up the population of the “No Mans Land.” From the Crawford writings we learn that the general locations of the Red Bone or Sabine River Redbone settlements were between the Quelqueshoe and Sabine Rivers near Natchitoches. There were three Redbone communities within “No Mans Land.” The largest was in the Cherry Winche country that lies directly south of the old inland town of Hinston, but across the Quelqueshoe River. A second one was located in Newton County, Texas, near the Sabine River, and a third was on Bearhead Creek in Beauregard and Calcasieu Parishes in Western Louisiana. Data I have at this time suggest that some Redbones of the Carolinas migrated to Western Louisiana between 1790 and the early 1800s.

On October 12 and 13 some 70 visitors from Ceseme, Turkey, sister city to Wise, Virginia, were in Wise for their Fall Festival. The Turkish government is so convinced of the similarities between the early Ottoman Turks and our Appalachian Melungeons that they have renamed a mountain near the Aegean Sea, “Melungeon,” meaning “cursed soul” in Turkish.

Every new map will carry that name. Original Turkish spelling was Melunjan/Malunjan. Many early Turk Levant “sailors” certainly were cursed souls as they left their home-lands never to return. It would seem proper to rename this mountain for these young men as their families watched them sail away from atop this mountain. I reported some time back that Turkish scholar, Dr. Zakiriya Kursun, was researching similarities between Ottoman Turks and American southeast Indians long before we discovered a possible “Turk” connection. His works have recently been published in Turkish. Sometime in the future an English version may be published.

Besides the many similar culture traits, a large number of linguistic similarities were found, Examples; Alabama–in Turkish, Allah bamya means where shamed blood lives; Powhatan–Pohotan means Cruel Leader; Croatoan, the name carved on Roanoke Island Lost Colony–Croatan meaning the Croatian people, [Croatians may have been among the liberated Turks believed to have been found on Roanoke Island by Sir Francis Drake in 1586]: Allegheny-Allah genis meaning God’s vastness; Satz–old Appalachian Melungeon term for watch-saat meaning watch in Turkish.

It may be impossible for the individual family researcher to positively identify the heritage of his mystery ancestors. The study has developed into an unorthodox genealogical study. First, we have to unravel the heritage of the very early “mystery” peoples on our shores.

Evidence has led us into identifying the heritages of people that were never believed to have been in America. If our research proves accurate, there is no way we can document these heritages in American records. Some may have been here as early as the 1500s, and identifying the surnames of the women would be especially difficult here or in old world records.

Colonial social customs and laws would help cloud the identity of heritages listed on our records. One example: “Laws of Virginia,” Vol. III, by William Waller Hening, Chapter V, p252, defines who shall be called mulattoes. “Be it enacted and declared, That the child of an Indian and the child, grand-child, or great-grandchild, of a Negro shall be deemed, ac-counted, held and taken to be a mulatto.”

Progressive minded scholars from the academic fields of anthropology, history, genetics, medicine, ethnology, archeology, and linguistics have contributed to Dr. Kennedy’s re-search. Evidence continues to come in showing that a culture of dark skinned peoples with traits different from the Negro, Indian or Anglo were here. Earlier scholars may not have been aware of the existence of some who may have been here before Jamestown. If we are serious about exact, accurate heritages then the contributions of these scholars are an essential part of this research. Their contributions will also help the individual researcher decide if their mystery ancestor has a connection to these people. People of all nationalities are dis-covering that they may have the genes of these mystery people. Maybe this is why the search is so exciting, because it could help tie us all together.

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NOTE:  The above information produced by the Gowen Research Foundation (GRF), and parts of the “Gowen Manuscript” they worked on producing.  It has tons of information – much of it is correct, but be careful, some of it is not correct – so check their sources and logic.  I’ve copied some of their information in the past researching my own family, only to find out there were some clear mistakes.   So be sure to check the information to verify if it is right before citing the source and believing the person who researched it before was 100% correct.  Most of the information I found there seems to be correct, but some is not.

Their website is:  Internet: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~gowenrf

There does not seem to be anyone “manning the ship” at the Gowen Research Foundation, or Gowen Manuscript site any longer, and there is no way to contact anyone about any errors.   The pages themselves don’t have a mechanism to leave a note for others to see any “new information” that you may have that shows when you find info that shows something is wrong, or when something has been verified.

Feel free to leave messages about any new information found, or errors in these pages, or information that has been verified that those who wrote these pages may not have known about.

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