1 Groweere and Goneere
1641 March 31 – John Graweere, a black servant who may have later changed his last name to Gowen, is listed in a lawsuit. [The suit of John Graweere reveals that there were greater restrictions on the ownership of personal property by black servants. In addition, Graweere’s successful petition to purchase his child indicates another difference between white and black men. Graweere’s decision to use the court to secure his son’s freedom indicates that he was one of the many blacks in Virginia who knew how to use the colony’s institutions.]
Whereas it appeareth to the court that John Graweere being a negro servant unto William Evans was pmitted by his said master to keep hogs and make the best benefit thereof to himself pvided that the said Evans might have half the increase which was accordingly rendered unto him by the said negro and the other half reserved for his own benefit: And whereas the said negro having a young child of a negro woman belonging to Lieut. Robert Sheppard which he desired should be made a christian and be taught and exercised in the church of England, by reason whereof he the said negro did for his said child purchase its freedom of Lieut. Sheppardwith the good liking and consent of Tho: Gooman’s overseer as by the deposition of the said Sheppard and Evans appeareth, the court hath therefore ordered that the child shall be free from the said Evans or his assigns and to be and remain at the disposing and education of the said Graweere and the child’s godfather who undertaketh to see it brought up in the christian religion as aforesaid. Source: McIlwaine, ed., Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia, p. 477. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/practise.html
1648 June 22, John Goneere sayth uppon his oath, th’ he neuer knew any sort of fleash brought in, or spent in the howse of Tho: Munday since his comming uppon this Hand, more then hoggs properly belonging to the s”* Munday. And specially he sayth th’ he neuer knew Edw: Hudson bring any fleash into the howse of Tho: Munday, though frequendy hee went into the woods to kill meate. And further he sayth, th’ he knoweth not of any priuate place, eyther abroad or att home, wherein meate was hid. Jurat cora Gou’
Edward Claxton sayth uppon his oath, th’ Edw: Hudson did shoote a fayre Sow of AP Brent’s, uppon the Land of the s”^ M’ Brent in the He of Kent, about 3 weeks agoe, & th’ uppon the report of the gun, he this Dep’ came up to him, & saw the s”^ Hudson, sett his dog uppon the s” Sow. And afterwards
see him cutt the throate of the sow. And then M” Brent’s folks comming in, uppon the report of the gun, & the cry ot the sow, the s” Hudson, hid the s** sow in a marsh. And this Dep’ went home w”‘ Hudson to Tho: Munday’s howse. Where the s”* Dep’ heerd the s*^ Hudson, tell the s^ Munday, th’ he had killed a sow, & th’ M’ Brents folke came to him, & inquyred & sought, what he had killed : But for any thing he knew, the sow was not fownd. And next morning afore day, the s”^ Munday spoke to this Dep to fetch the s” sow home, to the s”* Munday’s howse. Who went not; But Hudson went, & came home, & sayd the sow was there. And the next night the s’* Dep’ & Hudson brought the s” Sow to a branch of a Creeke neare Brownes. Where the fores’^ Munday & Jn”
Goneere, had appoynted to meete them, to helpe to bring the Sow home. Munday came not, but Jn° Goneere came, &
392 Court and Testamentary Bnsifiess, 1648.
Liber A. cartyed one halfe of the s”^ Sow, to the s”^ Mundays howse. Where the s” Munday dressed it, & his Wife held the light. And further this Dep’ sayth th’ when the s”^ Hudson told the s”^ Munday he had killed this Sow : Hee added th’ hee wished hee had beene sick in his bed, when hee did it. And further
he sayth not. Sig. Jurat, cora Gou’ Edward Claxston.
p. 162 Jhon Goneere sayth uppon further examinaon th’ he heard Edw: Hudson tell Tho: Munday th’ he had killed a hog & hid it. And th’ M’ Brents men came to him, uppon the killing of it ; & s” th’ he thought they had not fownd it. And further heard the s”^ Hudson appoynt the s”* Munday & this Dep’ to meete him in the night, to helpe to bring home the hog & th’ the s”* Munday went not, but sent this Dep’ who carryed halfe the hog to the s”^ Mundays howse.
Jurat coram Gou’
Roger Baxster complayneth agst Edw: Commins for defam- ing him, saying That he was a periur’d Rogue, & th’ he would iustify it.
warr’ to the Sheriffe ret. 22° Junij.
Sub pn” to the Sheriffe to haue W”” Lant, Walter King, & Jn° Bennett to testify.
20″‘ Junis The Depos” of Rich: Duke taken by Tho: Garrard Esq’ one of his Lp’ Councell.
Rich: Duke aged thirty hue yeares, or thereabouts deposeth & sayth, as followeth. Viz th’ M’ Sowth came to this Dep’ & desyred him to sell him an Indian. This Dep’ answered him, he had none to sell. And then he desyred this Dep’ to goe w”* him up to Wicocomoco, & gett him an Indian, & hee would giue him content. And uppon these speeches they went w’** the Sloope up to Wicocomco purposely to gett an Indian. & further this Dep’ knoweth not of their designe
Sig. Jurat, cora Tho: Gerrard. Richard Duke
The Depos”” of Jn° Lancelett taken by Thomas Gerrard &c: ut supra.
Jn° Lancelett aged 19 yeares or thereabout sayth uppon his oath. Viz That M’ Sowth asking Rich: Duke to goe w’*’ him to Wicocomoco to gett him an Indian girle, went w”’ the s” Rich: Duke for company. And for what truck they had aboard the sloope. The s” Sowth told him, they had shooes, & one peice
of Broad-cloath Sr further this Dep’ sayth not. But presently
Court and Testamentary Business, 1648. 393
added th’ they told him, there was some powder & shott, in Liber a. the sloope ; But it was Will”* Cooks & they could not dispose of it. Sig
Jn° Lancelett Jurat, coram Tho Gerrard.
Att a Court held att “v Thomas Mathews in the behalfe of the
Henry Morgans howse f \j Prop^ complayneth ag^st Jn° Goneere,
att Kent. 220 Tunis / -nt 1 • n 1 . & -> ‘
prnt/Gouernor 1 hat Dcing Called to answere uppon his
\ Capt G. Brent -‘ oath, not hauing the feare of god afore his eyes, hee answered falsly & agst his knowledge, whereby he committed a willfull Periury. Wherfore the s” Tho: Mathews requyreth in the behalfe of the L” Prop’ the s^ Goneere to be brought to condigne punishm’
Jn° Goneere not hauing any thing to say for his defence, more then th’ it was the first time, he euer committed the like offence. The Court adiudged him to bee nayled by both the eares to the pillory, w”‘ 3 nayles in each eare ; & the nailes to bee slitt out, & afterwards to be whipped w”‘ 20 good lashes. And this to bee e.xequuted immediately, before any other busines of Court be proceeded uppon, warr’ to the Sheriffe ad Exequend.