1770 Phillip Goins b. abt 1770 in Mississippi

Phillip Goins, Choctaw
Evaded the Reservation

Prepared from research developed
By Della Ford Nash

Phillip Goins, a “three-quarters” Choctaw, was born in
Mississippi about 1770 and was a resident of the Choctaw
Nation in Mississippi, according to United States Citizenship
Court records as transcribed in “The Journal of American
Family Research,” Volume 3. For Phillip Goins to have
been a “three-quarters” Choctaw, his father and his
grandfather before him would have had to have married fullblood
Choctaw women. This suggests that the grandfather
Goins must have arrived in the Choctaw Nation around 1710.
“Goins” is not a word in the Choctaw language, nor is it found
in the “Choctaw Lexicon” compiled by the Rev. Cyrus
Byington. Since the “Goins” name is Caucasian and since
blue-eyed individuals have turned up among the Choctaw
descendants of Phillip Goins, it is suggested that he was of
Melungeon descent.
Phillip Goins was married about 1795 to Oti, a full-blood
Choctaw woman who was also born in Choctaw Nation. As
the pressure of white settlers began to encroach upon the
Indians in Mississippi, Phillip Goins reacted by moving to
Opelousas, Louisiana. He was enumerated there in St. Landry
Parish in the U. S. census of 1810 as the head of a household
composed of “three free colored persons.” The enumerators in
1810 had very little latitude as to how they recorded nonwhites.
Apparently Phillip Goins retained his affiliation with
the Choctaw tribe and commuted frequently to Mississippi on
visits with the tribesmen, many of whom wandered into his
area on hunting trips.
The Choctaw tribe lived for centuries in southeastern Mississippi.
They had not given the Americans any resistance. Instead
they had aligned themselves with the Americans in their
battles. Several hundred of their braves fought with the Mississippians
in the Creek War, according to “Rise and Fall of
the Choctaw Nation” by Angie Debo. They fought with
Gen. Andrew Jackson in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and in
the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812. They invited
American missionaries to establish stations and schools in the
Choctaw Nation and gave permission for the construction of
the Natchez Trace across their land.
Americans had begun flooding into Natchez, Mississippi and
the surrounding area even before the Revolutionary War.
From the Spanish Archives, “The Genealogical Helper” extracted
the names of 157 Americans who had arrived in 1789.
“Legajo 16” identified the individuals in a “Report on the tobacco
growers at Natchez during the past year” dated March 2,
1790. The white population in Mississippi grew from less
than 9,000 in 1800 to over 70,000 in 1830 and the pressure
upon the Indians began to increase exponentially. Phillip
Goins had foreseen the gathering storm for the Choctaws and
preceded westward.
The Choctaws were the first tribe to succumb to the pressure
of the encroaching white settlers. In 1830 they agreed to remove
to Oklahoma and became known as one of the “Five
Civilized Tribes.” Almost 7,000,000 acres were ceded to the
Choctaws in southeastern Oklahoma, “south of the Canadian
River, north of the Red River, from Ft. Smith west.” In Oklahoma
the Choctaws were settled primarily in McCurtain,
Pittsburg, Le Flore, Pushmataha and Choctaw Counties. Some
remained in Mississippi in Neshoba County where a Choctaw
reservation is maintained today. In 1990 about 4,000 of the
county’s population of 24,000 are Choctaws. Adjoining
Winston County also holds a high concentration of Choctaws.
William Armstrong undertook a Choctaw census in 1831 in
Mississippi which showed a total of 19,554, according to
“The Choctaws” by Jesse O. McKee and Jon A. Schlenker.
Of those 12,500 came to Oklahoma.
The Creeks and Seminoles began arriving in Oklahoma in
1832. The Cherokees traversed the “Trail of Tears” in 1835.
In 1837 6,070 Chickasaw and their slaves began moving from
Chickasaw Bluffs [present site of Memphis, Tennessee] to
their new capital at Tishomingo, Oklahoma. The territory the
Chickasaws gave up was generally the northern 1/5 of Mississippi.
They were transported to an area just west of the
Choctaws’ new homeland. Subsequently a portion of 67 Indian
tribes were removed to Oklahoma. In Oklahoma the
Choctaws were settled primarily in McCurtain, Pittsburg, Le
Flore, Pushmataha and Choctaw Counties. Some remained in
Mississippi in Neshoba County where a Choctaw reservation
is maintained today. In 1990 about 4,000 of the county’s
population of 24,000 are Choctaws. Adjoining Winston
County also holds a high concentration of Choctaws. A
Choctaw census taken in 1831 in Mississippi showed a total of
19,554. Of those 12,500 came to Oklahoma.
The American government showed a very devious nature in
dealing with the Choctaw Nation. It signed 16 different
treaties with the tribe and reneged shamefully on commitments
it had no intention of keeping. Apparently it was
concluded that it was easier to sweep the Indians westward
than to exterminate them.
In the Treaty of Treaty Ground, Mississippi signed October
20, 1820 by Gen. Andrew Jackson and Chief Pushmataha the
United States ceded land in southwest Arkansas, the southern
half of Oklahoma as well as land in Texas and New Mexico
[which belonged to Mexico.] The Choctaws gave away still
more in the Treaty of Washington January 20, 1825. Chiefs
Mushulatubbe, Pushmataha and Apuckshunnubbee undertook
the journey to Washington to sign the agreement.
Apuckshunnubbee died on the way, and Pushmataha died in
Washington in December 1824 before the treaty was signed.
It seemed that the Indians suffered in every contact with the
whites.
The treaty finalizing the Choctaw removal was signed
September 28, 1830 at the council grounds on Dancing Rabbit
Creek, Mississippi. This treaty specified that “no part of the
land ceded to the Choctaw Nation shall ever be embraced in
any territory or state.” It further provided for a Choctaw delegate
in the U. S. Congress, but Congress never granted such
representation. The Choctaws gave up 10,000,000 acres of
prime Mississippi land in the bargain. To soothe the objections
of the Indians who protested that the land being offered
in the treaty was already occupied by the whites, Andrew
Jackson assured the Choctaws that he would drive out
the settlers. Arkansas Territory which was created in 1819
embraced the land that was being offered. Old Miller County,
Arkansas Territory had been created in 1820 and by 1821
already had a “population of 999 and 84 slaves,” according to
the March 3, 1821 edition of the “Arkansas Gazette.” The
population of Old Miller County had increased to 2,500 in
1825. Very few of this first settlement of “sooners” were ever
disturbed by Jackson’s promise.
The Americans used every means of duplicity to gain the upper
hand. They freely distributed whiskey among the Indians,
undermining their will to work and to produce. They distributed
lavish bribes among the chieftains to gain their consent
to the treaties and to influence them to “sell out” their
people and their heritage. The Indians received nothing but
misery for their passive resistance.
The Choctaws in Jasper and Newton Counties wrote a letter
delineating their oppression to George S. Gaines, one of their
few trusted friends in Washington:
“Our tribe has been woefully imposed upon of late.
We have had our habitations torn down and burned;
our fences destroyed, cattle turned into our fields and
we ourselves have been scourged, manacled, fettered
and otherwise personally abused, until by such treatment
some of our best men have died. These are the
acts of the persons who profess to be the agents of the
Government to procure our removal to Arkansas and
who cheat us out of all they can, by the use of fraud,
duplicity and even violence.”
The treaty of 1830 specified that 7,000 Choctaws were to remain
in east central Mississippi, but again the Americans
weaseled out. The white citizens of Alabama and Mississippi
maintained a constant clamor for their removal also. Sen. Jefferson
Davis of Mississippi was foremost among those determined
to expel to remaining remnants of the Choctaws from
Mississippi. He wrote, “It is an object of great importance that
the Choctaws be completely removed and prevented from
returning.”
American officials circulated reports about the generous conditions
given to the Choctaws by the terms of the treaty, but
many church officials objected to the bullying of the Indians.
Mary Elizabeth Young in “Redskins, Ruffleshirts and Rednecks”
reported on the reaction of the missionary officials:
“The missionaries of the American Board, angry because
the treaty granted no compensation for their expensive
schools and mission stations, did not consider
it generous in any respect. They regarded the extensive
reserves given to Indian leaders as mere bribes. They
deplored the scanty provision for emigrating tribesmen
whose improvements were small. They bitterly resented
the commissioners’ misrepresentation of the way
in which the agreement had been negotiated.”
The editor of the “Vicksburg Daily Sentinel” recorded the
beginning of the exodus:
“They are going away! With a visible reluctance which
nothing has overcome but the stern necessity they feel
impelling them, they have looked their last on the
graves of their sires–the scenes of their youth, and
have taken up the slow toilsome march with their
household goods among them to their new homes in a
strange land. They leave names to many of our rivers,
towns and counties, and so long as our State remains,
the Choctaws who once owned most of her soil will be
remembered.”
The horrors of the Choctaw migration were never publicized
to the extent as were the Cherokee’s “trail of tears,” but they
were just as devastating. From 1831 to 1834 forced marches
of tribesmen, mostly on foot, in groups of 500 to 1,000 started
out for Oklahoma, invariably in the fall and winter months.
The trip of 550 miles passed through unsettled country of
dense forests, swamps, thick canebrakes and swollen rivers.
The suffering, caused by the mistakes and inefficiency of the
War Department combined with one of the regions’ worst
blizzards in history was indescribable.
Choctaw Agent William S. Colquhoun at Vicksburg, Mississippi
wrote December 10, 1831 to Brigadier General George
Gibson that a party of Choctaws had arrived there after marching
24 hours through sleet and snow. “Their situation is distressing
and must get worse, they are often very naked and
few moccasins are seen amongst them.”
A party of 2,500 Choctaws traveling by steamboat were disembarked
at Arkansas Post and kept in open camps through
the worst of the blizzard. Many had to remain for weeks
awaiting horses which were being driven overland from
Louisiana. Cholera broke out on a boatload of Indians nearing
the Memphis transfer station, and many panic-stricken women
and children refused to board another steamboat. They were
ferried across the Mississippi and continued the journey on
foot.
When he observed the Choctaws crossing the Mississippi at
Memphis Alexis de Tocqueville wrote:
“In the whole scene there was an air of ruin and destruction,
something which betrayed a final and irrevocable
adieu; one couldn’t watch without feeling one’s
heart wrung. The Indians were tranquil, but sombre
and taciturn. There was one who could speak English
and of whom I asked why the Choctaws were leaving
their country. ‘To be free,’ he answered.”
Many hundreds fell victim to blizzards and cold weather and
all manner of disease. Epidemics of smallpox, cholera, typhoid
and “intermittent fever” devastated the tribe enroute
route and in its early years in Oklahoma.
No physicians were among the Indians in the initial treks, but
many churchpeople became aware of their suffering and volunteered
to help. Teachers and preachers were sent. Dr.
Alexander Talley, a Ph.D. and a Methodist missionary, accompanied
the first Choctaw party moving westward. Soon
the War Department elected to have doctors accompany them.
On the steamboat Reindeer in November 1832 Dr. John T.
Fulton and a Dr. Rayburn, government agents, reported 12
deaths in three days in a party of 445 Choctaws due to cholera
“for which they knew no effective treatment,” according to
Indian Agent A. S. Langham. In a five-week period ending in
September 1833, 600 died of fever alone, according to
“Indian Removal” by Grant Foreman.
Cyrus Bennington who was a missionary among the Choctaws
before the removal and who traveled to Indian Territory with
them estimated that 6,000 died during the migration, according
to “History of Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians”
by H. B. Cushman. President Andrew Jackson had appointed
Major Francis W. Armstrong “Superintendent of Indian
Affairs for the Choctaw Nation West of the Mississippi”
and dispatched him to Ft. Smith, Arkansas Territory. He arrived
at Ft. Smith just ahead of the first Choctaw contingent
and had little time to prepare to assist the Indians, according to
“Ft. Smith” by Edwin C. Bearss and A. M. Gibson.
Starvation was also a threat in the early years. The U. S. government
reneged on supplying the steel plows they had contracted
to supply to the tribe so that they could raise corn on
their land. In June 1833 a 10-foot flood on the Arkansas River
washed away all the mills, ferries and improvements that had
been built along the river. Maj. Armstrong wrote, “The
Choctaws are dying to an alarming extent. Near the agency
there are 3,000 Indians, and within the hearing of a gun from
this spot, 100 have died within five weeks.”
Phillip Goins spared his family the trauma of forcible ejection
from their homeland and placed them in much better circumstances
in Louisiana.
Children born to Phillip Goins and Oti Goins include:
Jeremiah Goins born in 1798
It is assumed that additional children were born to Phillip
Goins and Oti Goins. Suggested as a daughter is “Jenny
Goen” who was born about 1795. She was married in St.
Landry Parish March 12, 1814 to Jordan Perkins, according to
the research of Leila Raye Perkins Smith, a descendant of
Corrigan, Texas. She wrote January 25, 1990, “We have been
told that we have a lot of Indian blood. In some census enumerations
my ancestors were recorded as “Indian;” on others
they were shown as “white.” Most of the men in my family
are dark with blue eyes and straight black hair.”
“Patrick Goin,” a Choctaw Indian was appointed as a scout for
a survey party seeking a railroad route from San Antonio to El
Paso, Texas March 18, 1849. Robert S. Neighbors, Indian
agent made the appointment in San Antonio.
“Anna Goins, Choctaw” who was born about 1790 was married
about 1810 in St. Landry Parish to Thomas Nash, as his
second wife, according to a descendant, Della Ford Nash of
Oklahoma City. Thomas Nash was born in 1754 in Chowan
County, North Carolina. He was in Mississippi Territory by
1780 where he operated an Indian trading post. In 1815 they
lived in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. In 1826 they were in
Atascosita District, Tejas y Coahuila. They were enumerated
in the 1830 and 1850 census back in Natchitoches Parish.
Thomas Nash was enumerated as “age 97” and Anna Goins
Nash was reported as “age 77.”
It is interesting to note that Thomas Nash, Jr, who was born in
1785 to Thomas Nash and his first wife, Emily Slater Nash
was married to Sarah “Sally” Drake. Also, Phillip Goins [Jr?]
was married January 2, 1815 to Keziah Nash who was born to
Thomas Nash and Emily Slater Nash in Mississippi in 1789.
Children born to Thomas Nash and Anna Goins Nash included
James Nash who was born in 1813 in Rapides Parish, Louisiana.
Land was taken from Rapides Parish to form St. Landry
Parish when it was created in 1807. James Nash was married
in 1834 to Mary Perkins. He died prior to the 1850 census,
but Mary Perkins Nash appeared in Rapides Parish in the
enumerations of 1850 and 1860. Emanuel Nash, their fourth
child, was born in Rapides Parish in 1842. He was married
about 1898 to Sena Goins/Goynes, his third wife. Eight
children were born to them, according to Della Ford Nash.
Their descendants removed to Oklahoma, perhaps to affiliate
with the Choctaw tribe when the U.S. government began to
make payments to the Indians.
(To be continued in July Issue)

Phillip Goins, Choctaw
Evanded the Reservation

Prepared from research developed
By Della Ford Nash
(Continued from June issue)

Jeremiah Goins, son of Phillip Goins and Oti Goins, was born
in Choctaw Nation [Mississippi] in 1798. He was probably
the third “free colored person” enumerated in the 1810 census
of his father’s household in St. Landry Parish. He was married
about 1820 to Sarafina Drake, probably age 14. They continued
to live in Louisiana until 1834 when they emigrated to
Coahuila y Tejas where they became citizens of Spain.
They settled in Bevil Municipal District, named for John R.
Bevil, located between the Neches and Sabine Rivers in what
was later Newton and Jasper Counties. Bevil Fort was located
at a bend in the Neches River just south of present-day Zavala,
Texas. There were 23 municipal districts in Texas at the time
of the Declaration of Independence. On March 17, 1836, two
weeks afterward, each became one of the original 23 Texas
counties.
The household of Jeremiah Goins was enumerated in the
Spanish census of Bevil District in 1835. The census was
compiled by Marion Day Mullins and published by the National
Genealogical Society as “First Census of Texas 1829-
1836.” They were recorded as:
“Goin, Jerry 37, farmer
Drake, Sarafina 28, wife
Goin, Henry 13
Ransom 11
Eveline 9
Sybrant 7
Caroline 5
Robert 3
James 1”
Fortunately for genealogists, it was the custom of Spanish
enumerators to record married women by their maiden names.
There is no record of military service on the part of Jeremiah
Goins in the Texas Revolution which was to erupt in the following
spring. However, Gen. Sam Houston had exempted
Melungeon William Goyen of Nacogdoches from military service
so he could be a liaison and an interpreter with the Texas
Indians to keep them on friendly terms with the Anglos.
Dawes Commission records show that Jeremiah Goins had
also acted as an interpreter, and it possible that he had
rendered such a service for Texas in its struggle for independence.
In a small, aging book in the office of the County Clerk of Jefferson
County are found the names and the dates of arrival in
Texas of the population of the Beaumont area in 1838 who applied
for land grants. It was written with pen and ink primarily
in the handwriting of Col. Henry Millard, one of the
heroes of the Battle of San Jacinto. Col. Millard, one of Gen.
Houston’s staff, named the town of Beaumont and the county
of Jefferson for his brother-in-law Jefferson Beaumont of
Natchez.
In 1838 Jeremiah Goins made an application to the Board of
Land Commissioners of Jefferson County, Texas for a land
grant which was accepted and forwarded to the State Land
Office in Austin where the originals on crisp, yellowing old
paper may be found today. The application read:
“I do solemnly swear that I was a resident of Texas at
the date of the Declaration of Independence, that I did
not leave the country during the campaign of the spring
of 1836 to avoid a participation in the struggle, that I
did not refuse to participate in the war and that I did
not aid or assist the enemy, that I have not previously
received a title to my quantity of land and that I conceive
myself justly entitled under the constitution and
laws to the quantity of land for which I now apply.
Jeremiah [X] Going”
Anglo citizens were entitled to “a league and a labor,” 4,605
acres, if they could sign the above oath. Free Negros, mulattos,
Melungeons and Indians were generally passed over.
Jeremiah Goins may have received his land grant and sold his
patent. In any event, when he appeared in Limestone County,
Texas in 1850, he was not recorded as a land owner.
In 1896, David Reynolds, 78 years old and a resident of Atascosa
County, Texas gave an affidavit to the Dawes Commission,
“I was present when he [Jeremiah Goins] proved himself
by white men and Indians that he was a Choctaw Indian at
Nacogdoches County in 1848 in the latter part of August.”
On October 16, 1850 his household was enumerated in Limestone
County in the federal census, page 759 as Household
163-163:
“Goins, Jeremiah 58, born in Mississippi, farmer,
illiterate, mulatto
Charity 58, born in Louisiana
Ransom 24, born in Louisiana
Sebern 22, born in Louisiana
Caroline 20, born in Louisiana
Robert 19, born in Louisiana
James 16, born in Texas
Robert 14, born in Texas
Reuben 13, born in Texas
Adaline 15, born in Texas
Emily 9, born in Texas
Jeremiah 5, born in Texas
Mary 2, born in Texas”
In an adjoining household, No. 164-164, was enumerated the
family of Henry Goins, son of Jeremiah Goins.
From the two census returns, it is believed that Sarafina Drake
Goins was the first wife of Jeremiah Goins and Charity Goins
was his second. It is suggested that Sarafina Drake Goins was
the mother of Henry Goins, Ransom Goins, Evaline Goins,
Seaborn Goins, Caroline Goins, Robert Goins, James Goins
and Adeline Goins. It is believed that Charity Goins was the
mother of the second Robert Goins, Reuben Goins, Emily
Goins, Jeremiah Goins and Mary Goins. The second Robert
Goins and Reuben Goins may have been foster children of
Jeremiah Goins. It is believed that Emily Goins, Jeremiah
Goins and Mary Goins were the children of Jeremiah Goins
and Charity Goins.
Jeremiah Goins was a resident of San Saba County, Texas
May 21, 1857 when his daughter Adeline Goins was married
to Lewis A. Mulkey.
Jeremiah Goins does not appear as the head of a household in
the index of the 1860 census of Texas compiled by Accelerated
Indexing Systems. “Jerry Goins, Sr.” was enumerated as
the head of a household in the 1870 census of Atascosa
County, page 171, living near Pleasanton, Texas. Other Goins
households in the 1870 census of Atascosa County included R.
G. Goins, page 171; Ransom Goins, page 194; Sarah Goins,
page 202; Rayborn Goins, page 204; Hardinia Goins, page
199; James Goins, page 204 and Josephine Goins, page 194.
“Jeremiah Goens of Hays County, Texas” received a deed
from Robert Mays of Hays County to 535 acres lying in Hays
and Burnet Counties, according to Travis County, Texas Deed
Book L, page 419.
It is believed that Jeremiah Goins and Charity Goins removed
to San Antonio, Texas about 1873. “Jerry” Goins received a
deed to Lots 37, 38, 39 and 40 in San Antonio from Juan Jose
Flores September 18, 1873 for $1,500, according to Bexar
County Deed Book 1, page 116.
Jeremiah Goins appeared as the head of a household in the
1880 census of Bexar County, Enumeration District 22, page
17 on June 11, 1880:
“Goins, Johan 80, born in MS, father born in MS,
mother born in MS, mulatto,
farmer
Charity 70, born in MS, father born in MS,
mother born in MS, wife
Morris, Lisie 16, born in TX, father born in
TX, mother born in TX, niece”
The household of Lewis A. Mulkey, his son-in-law, was also
enumerated nearby June 10, 1880 in Enumeration District 22,
page 16. Charity Goins died May 31, 1881 at Pleasanton,
Texas and was buried in San Jose Cemetery near San Antonio
“on property which they owned,” according to Howard Goins.
Jeremiah Goins died August 18, 1883, according to Howard
Goins, however “Jeremiah Goins, Sr.” [probably his estate] received
a deed February 12, 1884 to 160 acres in Survey 14, located
on Atascosa Creek 19 miles southeast of San Antonio
for $140 from Lewis A. Mulkey and Adeline Goins Mulkey,
his daughter, according to Bexar County Deed Book 33, page
149.
The will of Jeremiah Goins, written November 2, 1882 and
was filed for probate August 14, 1883 and was recorded in
Bexar County Probate Book J, pages 176-178. The document
has been transferred to the archives of the Bexar County
Clerk’s office.
A deed and a release dated June 30, 1886 signed by Jeremiah
Goins, Jr. “son of Jerry Goins” and Alice Goins, his wife,
recorded in Bexar County Deed Book 48, page 380 mentions
that “my mother and father are buried here.” Consideration of
the 160 acres of land was $800. Apparently this was the land
purchased from the Mulkeys in 1884. This burial ground in
1992 was known as Oakley Cemetery. The descendants of
Jeremiah Goins and Sarafina Goins gathered there June 27,
1992 for a family reunion.
Early day range men in Texas classified three kinds of soil in
the state–Bowie soil which would support 20 cows to the acre,
Travis soil which would support 10 cows to the acre and
Gowen soil which would support only five cows per acre. It is
speculated that since Jeremiah Goins was the only member of
the family contemporary with Travis and Bowie in Texas,
Gowen soil was named for him. [Col. William Barrett Travis
and Col. Jim Bowie died in the Battle of the Alamo.]
On September 9, 1896 evidence was introduced in United
States Citizenship Court in Indian Territory that the names of
Henry Goins, William Goins and James Goins together with
their children [unnamed] appeared on the 1874 census roll of
Kiamitia County, Indian Territory. An application was made
for the enrollment as Choctaws by blood “Robert Goins and
99 others, all claiming to be children and grandchildren of
Jeremiah Goins, a half-blood Choctaw and a recognized
member of the Choctaw Nation in Mississippi” was filed with
the Dawes Commission and evidence in support thereof, consisting
of numerous affidavits, submitted. The record shows:
“Jeremiah Goins was a mixed-blood Choctaw, possessing
somewhere between one-half and seven-eighths
Choctaw blood; that his father was Philip Goins, his
mother Oti. Philip Goins was about three-quarters
Choctaw, while Oti was a full blood. Jeremiah Goins
and his family were members of the Choctaw Nation in
Mississippi. The record shows that he was one of the
frontiersmen alternating between the Choctaw Nation
and Texas; that he was always acknowledged by those
who knew him to be a Choctaw Indian; that he acted as
an interpreter in proceedings in which Choctaws
appeared.”
The Dawes Commission on December 1, 1896 denied the request
of the applicants stating that “a Choctaw Indian, to be
entitled to enrollment should have at some time prior to the act
of 1898 established a residence in the Choctaw Nation.”
Additionally the Commission stated that the names of the descendants
of Jeremiah Goins did not appear on the tribal rolls.
The family appealed the decision. On December 1, 1896 its
attorneys presented the appeal to the United States Court for
the Southern District, Indian Territory at Ardmore, Oklahoma
for the family members to be admitted to the Choctaw rolls.
The attorneys introduced over 50 pages of typewritten
material in evidence of blood, residence and tribal affiliation.
They were successful on this occasion:
“Decree entered admitting the following persons:
Robert Goins, Elizabeth Goins, Seaborn Goins, Calvin
Goins, Caroline Goins, John Goins, Elizabeth Goins,
Minereva Goins, William Henry Goins, Samantha
Goins, James Goins, James Goins, Jr, Randolph Goins,
Lizzie Goins, Rayborn Goins, Thomas L. Goins,
William Goins, Collin Goins, Eli Goins, Rayborn
Goins, Campbell Goins, Martha Margaret Goins, Missouri
E. Goins, Amanda May Goins, Dinkey Goins,
Reuben Goins, Mary Goins, Cordelia Goins, Jeremiah
Goins, Jr, Monroe Goins, William Goins, Frank Goins,
Leonard Goins, Mrs. Evaline Paddieo [Padier], Reuben
Paddieo, John Paddieo, Evaline Paddieo, Martha
Paddieo, W. C. Tasso Paddieo, James Paddieo,
Amanda Paddieo, Jerry M. Morris, G. W. Morris,
Spencer W. Morris, Jr, Sarah Morris, Kansas Morris,
Mrs. Emily Perrice [Perez], G. W. Nevils, Ike Perice,
Josephine Perrice, Josephine Perrice, Mary Perrice,
Anna Perrice, Alonza Perrice, Caroline Perrice, Mrs.
Mary Southward, W. C. Southward, William Southward,
Elizabeth Southward, John F. Southward, James
Marion Southward, Jessie Myrtle Southward, Maggie
May Southward, James Melton Gardner, Margaret
Lugene Gardner, Manda Eldora Gardner, Cora Lee
Gardner, J. M. Gardner, Ebenezer S. Morris, Gertrude
E. Morris, Jesse W. Morris, Jesse Coleman Morris,
Augusta B. Morris, Wilmuth Morris, Nora Lee Morris,
Mollie Morris, Cora May Morris, Kansas Viola Morris,
Frank C. Jones, James Jones, Jesse Jones, Gypsie
Jones, Frank C. Jones, Ignathia Marjories, Susie Marjories,
Reams Marjories, Joe Perrice, Ignathia Perez, Jr.
Eugene Dias, Albert Dias, Clara Androda [Andrade],
Christoval Androda, Mrs. Josephine Priest, Adella
Taylor, Pearline Taylor, Anzo Taylor, William Martin
Taylor, Josephine Taylor and Clara Taylor.”
A judgment was rendered in favor of the family December 21,
1897:
“In the United States court in the Indian Territory,
Southern District at a term begun and held at Ardmore,
in the Indian Territory, on the 15th day of November,
A.D. 1897. The Hon. Hosea Topwnsend, judge. The
following order was made and entered of record, to
wit:
Robert Goins et al vs. The Choctaw Nation, No. 127
Judgement
At this time came on to be heard the report of the
master in chancery, filed herein June 23, 1897, and at
the same time came the applicants by their attorneys;
and it appearing to the court that the applicants herein
through their attorneys have excepted to the report of
said Master in chancery, wherein he recommends that
those of the applicants who are nonresidents of the Indian
Territory be denied the right to have their names
enrolled as members of the tribe of Choctaw Indians,
and the court, after hearing said exceptions and being
fully advised in the premises, is of the opinion that said
exceptions be, and the same are hereby, sustained; and
it appearing to the court from the report of said master
and from the evidence filed herein that all of the applicants
are members of the tribe of Choctaw Indians:
It is therefore considered, adjudged and decreed by the
court that Robert Goins and his wife, Elizabeth Goins
and Seaborn Goins, Calvin Goins, Caroline Goins,
John Goins, Elizabeth Goins, Minerva Goins, William
Henry Goins and Samontha Goins, the children of
Henry Goins, deceased and James Goins and his children,
James Goins, Jr. and Randolph Goins and Lizzie
Goins; and Rayborn Goins and children, Thomas L.
Goins, William Goins, Collin Goins, Eli Goins, Rayborn
Goins, Campbell Goins, Martha Margaret Goins,
Missouri E. Goins, Amanda May Goins and Dinkey
Goins; and Reuben Goins and children, Mary Goins
land Cordelia Goins; and Jeremiah Goins, Jr. and children,
Monroe Goins, William Goins, Frank Goins, and
Leonard Goins; and Mrs. Evaline Paddieo [Padier] and
her children, Reuben Paddieo, Tasso Paddieo, John
Paddieo, Evaline Paddieo, Martha Paddieo, James
Paddieo and Amanda Paddieo; and the children of
Caroline Morris whose name was Caroline Goins, to
wit: Jerry M. Morris, G. W. Morris, Spencer W. Morris,
Jr. Sarah Morris and Kansas Morris; and Mrs.
Emily Perrice [Perez] and G. W. Nevils, her son by her
first husband, William M. Nevils, and her children by
her second husband, Antonio Perrice, to wit, Ike Perrice,
Josephine Perrice, Mary Perrice, Anna Perrice,
Alzona Perrice, and Caroline Perrice; and Mrs. Mary
Southward and her husband, W. C. Southward and
their children, William M. Southward, Elizabeth
Southward, John F. Southward, James Marion Southward,
Jessie Myrtle Southward, and Maggie May
Southward; and the children of Sallie Goins who married
J. M. Gardner, viz. James Melton Gardner, Margaret
Lugene Gardner, Manda Eldora Gardner and
Cora Lee Gardner, and the said J. M. Gardner; and the
children of J. M. Morris, who was a son of Caroline
Morris, viz, Ebenezer S. Morris, Gertrude E. Morris,
Jesse W. Morris, Jesse Coleman Morris and Augusta B.
Morris; and the children of G. W. Morris, viz, Wilmuth
Morris, Nora Lee Morris, Mollie Morris, Cora May
Morris and Kansas Viola Morris; and the children of
Sallie Morris who married Frank C. Jones, viz, Frank
C. Jones, James Jones, Jesse Jones and Gypsie Jones
and the said Frank C. Jones; and the children of
Josephine Marjories, who was a daughter of the said
Emily Perrice, viz, Ignathia Marjories, Susie Marjories
and Reams Marjories; and the children of Ike Perrice,
who was son of Emily Perrice, viz, Joe Perrice and Ignatia
Perrice, Jr; and the children of Mary Dias, who
was a daughter of Emily Perrice, to wit, Eugene Dias
and Albert Dias; and the children of Anna Androda
[Andrade], a daughter of Emily Perrice, to wit: Clara
Androda and Christoval Androda; and the grandchildren
of Jeremiah Goins, to wit, Mrs. Josephine Priest
and her children by her former husband, namely,
Adella Taylor, Pearline Taylor, Anzo Taylor, William
Martin Taylor, Josephine Taylor and Clara Taylor are
all members of the Choctaw Tribe of Indians and as
such are entitled to have their names enrolled as members
of said tribe of Choctaw Indians by blood, except
as to the said W. C. Southward, who is a member of
said tribe by intermarriage, and Elizabeth Goins, the
wife of Robert Goins, who is a member of said tribe by
intermarriage.
It is further considered, adjudged and decreed by the
court that the Choctaw Nation, the defendant, pay all
costs in this behalf expended and incurred, for which
execution may issue.
It is further considered, adjudged and decreed by the
court that the clerk of this court certify this judgment to
the Commission of the United States to the Five Civilized
Tribes for its observance. To which judgment of
the court the defendant, the Choctaw Nation, in open
court duly excepted.”
Mary Harmon Wallace of Ratliff City, Oklahoma, a
descendant of Jeremiah Goins and a member of the Editorial
Board of Gowen Research Foundation, wrote an explanation
of the difficulty that faced the Choctaw Goins individuals in
being enrolled as members of the tribe in Oklahoma:
“A question often asked, ‘If Jeremiah Goins was half or
more Choctaw Indian, why wasn’t the Goins family admitted
to the Choctaw Indian Rolls?’
The general public has never understood and most do
not now understand that Indian descent, Indian blood
of any tribe, no matter how well authenticated, did not
entitle one to tribal citizenship.
During the enrollment period many applications were
presented by people claiming to have Indian blood,
others who had lived outside the Nation and had never
been recognized as citizen of any tribe. Having Indian
blood did not of itself confer citizenship. The claimants
continued, however to harass the Dawes Commission
until 1902, when Congress settled the matter by a law
stating that no application would be received from any
person who was not a recognized citizen of a tribe.
The Citizenship Court set up under the terms of the
compact in existence from 1902 to the end of 1904. It
rendered a decision the 17th day of December 1902, in
the case styled, The Choctaw and Chickasaw Nation of
Tribes vs J.T. Riddle, et al. Their decision was, that the
Federal Courts of the Indian Territory had not followed
the correct procedure, by allowing suit to be brought
against each tribe separately, and by trying the cases,
de nove, instead of admitting only the evidence
submitted to the Dawes Commission.
This ruling gave the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nation
the desired opportunity for rehearing of their cases
before the Citizenship Court, and they secured an
almost complete reversal, the claims of about 3,400
persons for citizenship in the five tribes were rejected
and about 156 were sustained. (Ref. Report Select
Commission, I, Report of Commission of Indian
Affairs, 1903, Commission of the Five Civilized Tribes
annual paper, 1904, and in Angie Debo’s “The Rise
and Fall of the Choctaw Republic” University of
Oklahoma, Norman: 1961.)
In the case of Robert Goins et al. #127 vs The Choctaw
Nation, Robert Goins listed 98 other Goins family
members, the judgement dated 21st day of December
1897, stated the listed members ‘were members of the
Tribe of Choctaws.’
On the 17th day of December 1902, the decree of the
United States Court was ‘vacated’ by a decree of the
Citizenship Court, (by the above 1902 ruling,). On 3
March 1903, the family was to get a new trial, then on
29 July 1904 a decree was entered denying all
claimants. In September 1904, 47 children’s application
was denied by the commission
The case was closed 15 September 1904. The case was
reviewed the 22nd day of April 1909. The matter was
terminated 3 June 1909. ‘The Indian Office Secretary
could find no evidence that the family had established
residence in the Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory.’
Robert Goins and some family members were awarded
land in the vicinity of Ada, Indian Territory, but had to
give the land up in 1904. Caroline (Callie) had land at
Ireton (Alex), Indian Territory.
Ransom and Reuben Goins were the smart ones, they
just married full blood Indians and became members of
the tribe by intermarriage. (Ref. Court Records from
the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Muskogee, Oklahoma,
Records of The Citizenship Courts at Tishomingo,
Oklahoma).”
On December 17, 1902 the decree of the United States Court
was “vacated” by a decree of the Citizenship Court in a “test
case.” On March 3, 1903 it was announced that the family
was to get a new trial. On July 29, 1904 a decree was entered
denying all claimants.
In September 1904 applications for enrollment of children
listed below was denied by the Commission. One of the
opinions read:
“The right of the applicants’ father, John H. Goins, to
citizenship in the Choctaw Nation having been
adversely determined by a decree of the Choctaw and
Chickasaw citizenship court, it is hereby ordered that
the application for enrollment as citizens by blood of
the Choctaw Nation be dismissed:
Leroy Goins, Albert Goins, Georgia Goins, Paul Goins,
Minneola Goins, Henry Goins, Jewel Goins, Starley
May Goins, Jesse Goins, Tomer A. Goins, Henry A.
Goins, William B. Goins, Allie May Goins, General
Jackson Hinkle, Bessie M. Jones, Flora Leona Jones,
Buel Bradford Jones, Frank Delmer Jones, James I.
Paddieo, John L. S. Cox, Eva Paddieo, Josie Paddieo,
William Adolphus Ramsey, Effie S. Southward, Susan
Southward, Edith Southward, William W. Morris, Lula
Mamie Morris, Andrew J. Dorn, Tommy O. Dorn,
Robert A. Dorn, Lenora May Laxton, Maggie Edwards,
Roy Edwards, Elizabeth Martinez, Alzina Martinez,
Ida Padier, Seborn Goins, Nellie Marjories, Manuel
Marjories, Jr, Fred Lee Marjories, Ida Goins, Ruby
Viola Goins, Joseph Goins, Conception Perrice [Perez],
Ella Perrice and Stella Perrice.”
The case was closed September 15, 1904. The Indian Office
reviewed the case April 22, 1909. The matter was finally laid
to rest June 3, 1909. The Indian Office Secretary could find
no evidence that the family had established residence in
Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory. Eighty-one years later
genealogists are just as hard-pressed to find evidence of residence.
It is believed that children born to Jeremiah Goins and his two
wives include:
Henry Goins born in 1824
Ranson Goins born in 1825
Evaline Goins born in 1826
Seaborn Goins born in 1828
Caroline Goins born in 1830
Robert Goins born in 1831
James C. Goins born in 1834
Adeline Goins born in 1835
Robert Goins born in 1836
Reuben A. Goins born in 1837
Emily Goins born in 1841
Jeremiah Goins, Jr. born in 1845
Mary Goins born in 1848
William Gowen Killed by Blow
From Kinsman in Fistfight
William Gowan and John Lewis were involved in a fistfight
which resulted in the death of William Gowan, according to
a newspaper article in “The Carolina Spartan” in its
edition of Wednesday, December 15, 1880. The article was
reproduced in “Old Spartanburg District Genealogy,”
Vol. 2, through the courtesy of Dr. James L. Reid of
Campobello, South Carolina, according to the research of
Beverly Turner Smith of Smyrna, Georgia. The article read:
“Sunday evening the 6th instant, William Gowan, near
Inman, and John Lewis, the husband of his grand-
daughter got into a quarrel, both being excited by
whiskey, and Lewis, about 25 years old, struck Gowan,
who is about 69, over the head with his fist. The
females then ran out of the house and do not know
what took place afterwards. Monday, Gowan was
walking about in a sort of delirious condition.
Thursday evening he went to bed and remained in a
comatose condition until Friday night when he died.
Saturday, Drs. Dean and Chapman made a post mortem
examination and made oath Sunday at the Coroner’s
inquest that Gowan’s skull was fractured and that
congestion of the brain took place. Sunday, Coroner
Ezell held an inquest, but the verdict has not been
published. Lewis has not been arrested. He is a native
of Georgia. Gowan moved from Union County to
Spartanburg County.”