1634 William Gowen b. 1634 in Scotland, immig. to Massachusetts

William Gowen b. 1634 in Scotland, immig. to Massachusetts

Parents:

  • Unk

Children born to William Alexander Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen
include:

Siblings:

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States and Counties to research: 

FACTS and NOTES: 

William Alexander Gowen, a Scottish soldier captured by the troops of Oliver Cromwell in the Battle of Dunbar September 3, 1650, is believed to be the first member of the Gowen family in New England. He was born in 1634, according to a deposition signed by him in 1685. His full name appeared to be William Alexander Gowen from tax records of Oyster River, Massachusetts [later New Hampshire.]

Having a middle name in the seventeenth century was a rarity. According to “Harper’s Magazine” in a 1900 edition:

“Middle names were once illegal in England. Old English law was definite as to the naming of children, and according to Sir Edward Coke’s law commentary, ‘a man cannot have two names of baptism,’ and ‘on bills of sale, ‘that purchaser be named by the name of his baptism and his surname.’ Royal personages were always allowed to have more than one given name, but as late as 1600, it was said there were only four persons in all England who had two given names. In 1620, when the Mayflower sailed for America, not a man or a woman aboard had a middle name.”

William Alexander Gowen was reported to be among 10,000 Scots captured by Cromwell in the battle fought on the east coast of Scotland. The one-sided battle which lasted only two hours was fought between 11,000 English Parliament supporters and 26,000 Scotch Royalists led by David Leslie, later Lord Newark. Dunbar is a seaport on the southern entrance to the Firth of Forth, 36 miles northeast of Edinburgh. In the battle 3,000 Scots were killed and 10,000 taken prisoner. The English put their casualties at only 20 men killed.

The prisoners taken at Dunbar were marched by the English down to Durham and Newcastle in Northumberland. Many perished on this march, and some were shot because they could not or would not march, according to “History of Dover, New Hampshire.” During the march, which took eight days, the prisoners were given little to eat. Disease swept off 1,500 in the course of a few weeks. The flux was responsible for the death of 500. The English reported that the Scots killed each other for money or clothing. In Northumberland the prisoners were put under the care of Sir Arthur Heselrig who wrote October 31, 1650 that “1,600 died altogether in 58 days.”

On September 19, 1650, Cromwell’s council ordered Heselrig to deliver to Samuel Clark 900 of the Scots for transportation to Virginia, and 150 more “well and sound, and free from wounds” were selected for transportation to New England. Those bound for New England were placed under the charge of Joshua Foote and John Becx of London who “were interested as managers of the ironworks at Lynn, Massachusetts.” They sailed on the “Unity” November 11, 1650. Upon arrival at Boston, some were sent to Berwick, [Kittery] Maine. There they settled in Unity Parish [named after their ship] and began work in a sawmill.
The names of 17 of the prisoners sent to Berwick were listed:

Niven Agnew James Barry Alexander Cooper
William Furbush Daniel Ferguson Peter Grant
George Gray William Gowen David Hamilton
Thomas Holme John Key Alexander Maxwell
John Neal John Ross John Taylor
William Thomson James Warren

When released in 1656, they settled in Berwick.

Col. Charles Edward Banks wrote an article, “Scotch Pris­oners Deported to New England by Cromwell, 1651-52” on the fate of the deported Scots which was published in “Mass­achusetts Historical Society Proceedings,” Volume 61 [1928].

Carl Boyer III writing in “Ship Passenger Lists” produced additional information about prisoners. He wrote:

“Early in September 1650 the Scots, supporters of Prince Charles, lost the battle of Dunbar to Cromwell’s English forces, with the resulting loss of thousands of Scots killed and wounded, and thousands more taken prisoner, to be marched to England and then shipped to varying parts of England, Ireland and the colonies.

In November 1650 a number of these prisoners were ap­parently sent to Boston in the “Unity,” arriving in New England early in 1651, no doubt. Sixty of these prisoners were sent to Lynn, to work in the iron industry, and the others dispersed. As the prisoners were sold as indentured servants at about 30 pounds each, the average passage at the time being about 5 pounds, Col. Banks has suggested that the owners of the “Unity” cleared a handsome profit of about 1,500 pounds on the trip.
John Gifford, iron works manager, wrote in 1653: ‘For 62 Scotts dd and 35 only left on the works, 17 to Aw­brey, 3 to commissioners; 2 sold and rest we desire to whom disposed of, which is 5 at 20 pounds.

Col. Banks listed the following as being probably pris­oners who settled in Berwick, formerly a part of Kit­tery, Maine: Niven Agnew, James Barry, Alexander Cooper, William Furbush, Daniel Ferguson, Peter Grant, George Gray, William Alexander Gowen, David Hamilton, Thomas Holme, John Key, Alexander Maxwell, John Neal, John Ross, John Taylor, William Thomson and James Warren.

A few years later a number of Scots went to the town of York, including John Carmichael, James Grant called “the Scots,” perhaps James Grant called “the drummer”, James Jackson, Robert Junkins, Micum MacIntire, Alexander MacNair, and Andrew Rankin.

The following is from “Governor Hutchinson’s Collection of Original Papers” and may furnish some light in respect to the above mentioned prisoners sent to this country and sold for slaves, no doubt, by order of the English Government, as sort of banishment for their rebellion. It is probable that some of them were sent to Barbadoes.”

The Rev. John Cotton wrote a letter reporting on the condition of the prisoners “to the Lord General Cromwell, dated at Boston in N. E, 28th of 5th, 1651:”

“The Scots, who God delivered into your hands at Dun­barre, and whereof sundry were sent hither we have been desirous [as we could] to make their yoke easy.

“Such as were sick of the scurvy or other diseases have not wanted physick and chyrurgery. They have not been sold for slaves to perpetual servitude, but for 6 or 7 or 8 years, as we do our owne; and he that bought the most of them buildeth houses for them, for every four an house, layeth some acres of ground thereto, which he giveth them as their owne, requiring 3 dayes in the week to worke for him [by turnes] and 4 dayes for themselves, and promiseth, as soone as they can repay him the money he layed out for them, he will set them at liberty.”

Battle of Dunbar, 1650
By Dennis Bell
Burnaby, British Columbia

“It was a time when rational men thought nothing of splitting religious hairs with cannonballs. It was the era of the English Civil Wars, 1642 to 1651 — an historical misnomer, since most of the carnage in those wars was in fact suffered by Ireland and Scotland rather than England.

Almost every student in the English-speaking world has learned the details of the Battle of Naseby and Oliver Cromwell’s subsequent execution of King Charles I. But few of us were taught anything about the Battle of Dunbar, September 3, 1650, where Scotland squandered an incredible opportunity to defeat Cromwell and change the course of British history. It was Scotland’s best and last realistic chance to chart its own political and religious destiny. That chance was wasted by a committee of Presbyterian ministers, blinkered by religious fanaticism. And the fiasco ended in an English-controlled death march of 5,000 Scottish prisoners of war, one of the most unsavory pages in British history.

The Dunbar Golf Club is located where the Firth of Forth runs into the North Sea below the Lammermuir Hills. It is one of Scotland’s best-kept golfing secrets, a beautiful 6,426-yard course of exasperating fairways, maddening traps and infuriating hazards. The greens are often coated white with ocean spray when golfers arrive at the crack of dawn to begin an always blustery and frequently rain-soaked round of 18 holes. The course occupies a slim stretch of relatively flat estuary terrain between the Firth of Forth and Doon Hill, the easternmost summit in the Lammermuirs. Scots have been golfing there since at least 1616, when two duffers from the neighbouring parish of Tyninghame were censured by the Church of Scotland for “playing gouff on the Lord’s Day.” In 1640, a Presbyterian minister was disgraced when he was caught committing the unpardonable sin of “playing at gouff.”

Ten years later, on September 1, 1650, Lord-General Oliver Cromwell camped on the soggy course with 11,000 exhausted and sick New Model Army soldiers, beating a hasty retreat out of Scotland for England. He must have wondered if he was about to be disgraced by his old comrade, Scottish General David Leslie, and defrocked as Lord-General by Parliament for merely playing at a war rather than winning it. Cromwell had hightailed it to Dunbar after failing in an attempt to seize Edinburgh, defended by Leslie and 23,000 Scottish soldiers now pursuing the English army down the east coast towards the border.

Just five years earlier, Leslie had won the day for a wounded Cromwell, leading a cavalry charge that defeated the Royalist Cavaliers at the critical Battle of Marston Moore, west of York. But on this day, the Scots had switched sides again, fighting now on behalf of the Royalists of Charles II, who had succeeded his father executed by Cromwell and the Roundheads on January 30, 1649. Leslie’s Army of the Covenant was poised to elevate the House of Stuart back to the British throne, and Presbyterianism to the altars of Westminster Abbey and Canterbury Cathedral.

At Dunbar, the Scottish field commander had bits and pieces of about 40 regiments under his command, cobbled into 10 brigades commanded by some of Scotland’s best and bravest military leaders. A Scottish army composed largely of Highlanders had been defeated by Cromwell a few months earlier at the Battle of Preston.

Those who made up Leslie’s new army were Lowlanders, from Glasgow, Ayrshire, Edinburgh and Fife. At the start of the civil wars, a brigade usually consisted of two full-strength regiments. However, by 1650, casualties, sickness, and desertions had cut most Scottish regiments down to half or even a quarter of their original strength. As a result, most brigades were composed of the remainder of three, four or sometimes more regiments.

Leslie specialised in cavalry. An average Scottish cavalry regiment usually consisted of a colonel commanding eight troops of 60 men, plus four officers below the colonel in each troop: a captain, lieutenant, commissioned quartermaster and a cornet who carried the troop’s cornet standard into battle. The troops had no sergeants — just two or three corporals, one or two trumpeters and a large complement of lowly privates.

Scottish officers were almost invariably from the wealthy upper class. They were expected to provide their own clothing, which was rather dashing and very expensive during the civil war period. Scarlet and black were the most popular officers’ colours. Black was a very difficult colour to manufacture with the vegetable dyes available to tailors during the 1600s. The only officers dressed in black were usually very high in rank from filthy rich baronial families. Scarlet was the cheaper colour of choice for most professional soldiers regardless of rank, their country of origin or which side they were on, making for some rather confusing battles.

Gold and silver laces were quite common in army garb, as were white lace collars and cuffs. Hair was generally worn at shoulder length, parted in the middle — even by the strait-laced Presbyterian Covenanters. Blue woollen brimmed hats and heavy steel helmets imported from the Continent were in vogue with officers on both sides of the civil war.

The other main units of the Scottish armed forces in the 1600s consisted of regiments of pike, about 1,000 men in each, armed with Spanish-designed 13- to 16-foot-long poles with iron spearheads. They were trained for close combat against infantry and cavalry charges. The regiments of musket, each numbering 800 to 1,000 men, were the army’s real firepower. It’s not known how much artillery the Scots had at their disposal in 1650.

Experts believe that General James Wemyss’ artillery regiment was probably able to deploy two or three dozen cannons of relatively short range, accounting for another 250 to 300 soldiers. The Scots also had regiments of “dragoones,” about 400 mounted infantry soldiers lightly armed with short-barrelled muskets or carbines — or weaponless except for lances and swords in times of troubled army finances.

The highly mobile dragoons were an elite force, traveling on horseback but generally fighting on foot. As mounted infantry, they often fought in the vanguard of advancing armies, or held rearguard positions when the main army was in retreat.

Scottish regiments were generally called into service by press and levy. As in Sweden, the Scottish central government established military districts, nominated colonels, authorised the levying of troops, and established quotas by shire. To ensure co-ordination between national and local bodies, the Covenanters created committees of war or committees of the shire, which consisted of men nominated by, and responsible to, central government.

These committees set the number of soldiers that each burgh or rural parish would raise to meet the quota for the shire. Councils functioned as recruiting agencies, while in more remote areas the clergy listed men eligible for service, selecting them with the assistance of the local landowner. Both encouraged men to join up with sermons, given with recruitment in mind.

Central to the success of levies was the landowners, who could bring out kinsmen, tenantry, and servants. It was no wonder that they were chosen for colonelcies, while captains often came from the same class. To make up quotas, press was used especially with militia, unlicensed beggars and petty criminals included.

In addition to regular units formed as mentioned, the Covenanters fielded clan forces. There is little record of their numbers, but it is safe to say that they formed company-sized units. The number reflected the men levied from a specific area or by a particular chieftain. Of the covenanting clans, none were reported present at Dunbar; clan chieftains raised their regiments by obliging their tenants — through feudal duty or coercion if necessary — to send their sons, brothers and husbands to follow the clan banner into battle.

The army was issued with ‘The Articles and Ordinances of War’; these specified the correct behaviour for soldiers. A unit could not be part of the army until it had sworn an oath on it and thus every soldier promised:

To be true and faithful in my service to the Kingdom of Scotland, according to the heads sworn by me in the Covenant:

To honour and obey my Lord General, and all my Superior Officers and Commanders, and by all means to hinder their dishonour and hurt;

To observe the Articles of War and camp discipline; never to leave the defence of this cause, nor flee from my colours so long as I can follow them:

To be ready to fight manfully to the uttermost, as I shall answer to God, and as God shall help me. –

Articles and Ordinances of warre, for the present expedition of the Armie of Scotland [London, 1644]

The battle flag of the Covenanters bore the motto “For Christ’s Crown and Covenant” and first appeared in 1639 in front of the Covenanter army commanded by General Alexander Leslie, first Earl of Leven, from Fife. He passed it to General David Leslie’s Army of the Covenant 11 years later.

Cromwell had returned from several months of drenching Ireland in blood to take on Leslie with a new army of 16,000 men, which crossed the Scottish border on July 22, 1650. He had eight regiments of cavalry and eight regiments of foot. One of the latter had just been formed in Coldstream near Newcastle — the Coldstream Guards.

English Scoutmaster General William Rowe reported to Parliament that Cromwell’s army was stocked with “very well baked bread,” virtually unbreakable and almost everlasting. They marched into Scotland loaded down as well with cheese, horseshoes, nails, and portable “biscuit ovens” in order to bake even more unbreakable bread. There were promises of beans and oats to follow by sea from Kent.

What the New Model Army lacked was tents — only 100 small ones for officers were supplied — and the soldiers in the ranks would pay a terrible price for this oversight.

As the English marched toward Edinburgh, Leslie unleashed a classic guerrilla war against them, perhaps the first army-sized guerrilla campaign in history. The terrain was Leslie’s personal backyard. He knew every inch of it and used that knowledge mercilessly against the frustrated New Model Army. The Scottish general’s troops — particularly his dragoons — ambushed the Roundheads in every mountain pass and glen. Then they melted away, leaving the English with nothing but wounds to treat and bodies to bury. English officer Charles Fleetwood wrote in despair in August that the New Model Army’s major problem was “the impossibility of our forcing the Scots to fight — the passes being so many and so great that as soon as we go on the one side they go on the other.”

At one point, Cromwell took a small party of his top commanders out for a first-hand look at the situation near Coltbridge. They ran into a hidden group of Scottish pickets, one of whom stood up and fired a quick musket round at Cromwell that just missed its mark. The startled Lord-General cupped his hands and shouted with bravado across the glen that he would have cashiered an English soldier for wasting a random shot from such a long distance away. The Scot shouted back that it was no random shot at all — he had been at Marston Moor with Leslie and Cromwell and recognised his one opportunity to kill the Lord General right off the bat. Then he melted into the heather, to reload and fight again.

The English were running out of supplies. The Scots had stripped the countryside bare as they carefully retreated, avoiding any sort of major battle. The weather turned cold and wet, and disease began to take a heavy toll of Cromwell’s forces. More than 4,000 English soldiers were reported too ill to fight at one stage during the Edinburgh campaign. As the Roundheads closed in on the Scottish capital, they discovered that Leslie had shepherded his army into a masterfully designed position between heavily fortified Edinburgh and Leith on the coast, its narrow approaches bristling with hidden artillery and musketry.

Cromwell’s own guns agonisingly wheeled all the way north from Newcastle briefly bombarded the city with a few pot-shots from Arthur’s Seat and his ships fired some desultory broadsides from the Firth of Forth, unmolested thanks to Scotland’s traditional failure to assemble any kind of navy. But the New Model Army was unable to breech Leslie’s Edinburgh defences.

In late August, the badly weakened English retreated east to Musselburgh on the coast, shipping out sick and wounded soldiers from its port by the hundreds. Leslie’s brigades took up the chase, paralleling the English march and harrying the Roundheads with incessant guerrilla attacks as both armies headed Southeast. Cromwell graphically described the situation in one of his dispatches: “We lay still all the said day, which proved to be so sore a day and night of rain as I have seldom seen . . . In the morning, the ground being very wet, we resolved to draw back to our quarters at Musselburgh, there to refresh and revictual. The enemy, when we drew off,
fell upon our rear . . . We came to Musselburgh that night, so tired and wearied for want of sleep, and so dirty by reason of the wetness of the weather, that we expected the enemy would make an infall upon us — which accordingly they did, between three and four o’clock in the morning.”

One disheartened English officer writing home described Cromwell’s forces at Musselburgh as “a poor, shattered, hungry, discouraged army.”

The Scots pushed the 11,000 remaining English troops into a narrow strip of coastal land near the town of Dunbar and boxed them in. Leslie marched his main regiments to the top of Doon Hill escarpment, blocking the route south with a high ground position that Cromwell instantly recognised as impregnable. The stage was set for what Oliver Cromwell himself later regarded as his greatest military victory — greater even than Naseby or Marston Moor. The committee of Covenanter ministers accompanying the Scottish army was poised to instruct David Leslie in the art of snatching defeat from the jaws of victory.

The morning of Sunday, September 1, 1650 was wet, cold and miserable — a typical late summer’s day on Scotland’s Southeast coast. The English commander’s scouts had reported the road to the south and safety at Berwick effectively blocked. It was time to stand and fight, against impossible odds. But how? Cromwell could see the threatening glint of Scottish pikes and a sea of regimental pennants fluttering on the summit of Doon Hill a mile and a half away.

He listened to the mutters of men and the rumble of moving artillery pieces drifting down the escarpment from a massive Scottish army itching for a fight. At this point, Cromwell’s choices amounted to charging uphill against a much superior Scottish army or staying put, to wither and die.

The Lord-General was holed up in Broxmouth House, a structure owned by the Earl of Roxborough, where a stream called the Broxburn slashes into the sea through a steeply sloped and heavily wooded glen. From Broxmouth the following day, he penned a urgent dispatch to Sir Arthur Haselrigge, his commander in Newcastle, pleading for reinforcements as soon as possible and urging him to keep the army’s predicament at Dunbar a secret from the parliamentarians back in London. “The enemy hath blocked up our way to Berwick at the pass through which we cannot get without almost a miracle,” Cromwell wrote. “Our lying here daily consumeth the men, who fall sick beyond imagination.”

On Monday afternoon, Cromwell summoned his regimental commanders and staff officers to a desperate strategy session at Broxmouth House. The English had only one thing going for them. If Leslie wished to attack, he could only do so by coming down the Doon escarpment — Cromwell’s men were out of range for Leslie’s artillery. As the Roundheads desperately groped for solutions to a frightening military predicament, the Scots themselves provided the answer.

Instead of waiting atop Doon Hill for the English to collapse from disease and starvation, Leslie’s army began moving slowly down the dominating slope at four o’clock in the afternoon to the cornfields below on the opposite side of the Broxburn from the Cromwell encampment. As Cromwell watched in disbelief and delight, the Scots cheerily settled into a night camp amid the rows of corn to get ready for the final victorious battle they believed would follow the next day. The Scots doused their matches, stacked their weapons, and unsaddled their horses. Many of their officers left to spend the night in the comfort of Dunbar-area farmhouses miles behind the lines — all the better to fight the English after a decent night’s sleep and a hearty farm breakfast.

It appears that General Leslie’s tried and true guerrilla strategy had been summarily overruled earlier in the day by the impatient Covenanter ministers’ committee from Edinburgh. The men of the cloth accompanied the Scottish commander to the top of Doon Hill, only to bury their heads in the religious sand. In mid-August, the Covenanters pressed Charles II to issue a public statement attacking his mother’s popery and his late father’s bad counsel. Charles refused and watered down his declaration considerably before making it public. The Covenanters went berserk and took their revenge by shooting themselves in the foot. They launched a purge of the Scottish army, starkly reminiscent of Josef Stalin’s ideological purges of the Soviet Union’s Red Army during the 1930s. More than 3,000 of General Leslie’s best professional soldiers including many of his officers were peremptorily dismissed from the army and sent home for such unforgivable sins as loose morals and swearing in public. One angry Scottish colonel said the Covenanters left Leslie with an army of “nothing but useless clerks and ministers’ sons, who have never seen a sword, much the less used one.”

Leslie’s army had already taken the high ground when the English straggled onto the golf course below late on the last day of August. He went to the Covenanters for permission to attack the English on September 1, a Sunday, before Cromwell could get his forces organised into a workable defence. They recoiled in horror from the idea of spilling blood on the Sabbath – even English blood.

As he resignedly watched the English regiments set up their defences on Sunday morning, Leslie went over to Plan “B.” He would stay atop Doon Hill and let the English army wither and die to the point of surrender or try to charge uphill against him. But at a morning meeting on Monday, September 2, the Covenanters would have none of it. The preachers now saw themselves as military strategists far more brilliant than the man who had had used his favourite allies “Hunger and Disease” to bring the English army to its knees with a minimum of Scottish losses.

God, they piously decided, was on the side of the Covenanters. They were in charge, and they ordered Leslie to lead his army down Doon Hill that afternoon to prepare for an all-out attack on Cromwell the following morning. After an hour of acrimonious debate, the exasperated general reluctantly obeyed, his tactical genius tied in knots of religious red tape.

With his back to the ocean, Cromwell now realised that his only chance of victory had miraculously come to pass. And he thanked the same God for his one shining chance at deliverance. He watched in amazement as the Scots formed their line at the bottom of Doon Hill into a giant fan-shaped arc, stretching from the coast to the Broxburn, presenting him with an irresistible target.

The Scots settled in with a massive contingent of cavalry on their right wing, crowded down onto the beach to the point where there was little room for manoeuvrability in the event of an attack. Of course the Scots thought they were about to do the attacking, not the English. But Cromwell decided to take the offensive. He ordered an audacious pre-dawn attack across the steep defile of Broxburn brook, aimed at a lightly defended position between the infantry and the cavalry on the Scottish right.

A nervous Cromwell spent the night riding from regiment to regiment by torchlight on a small Scottish pony, telling his troops to “remember our battlecry — the Lord of Hosts! Put your trust in God, my boys — and keep your powder dry!” He had little trouble encouraging his men to fight. The Scots had captured a Roundhead cavalry patrol near Glasgow a couple of weeks prior to Dunbar and had sent the tortured and mutilated bodies back to Cromwell as a warning. That savage gesture served only to infuriate the English rank and file and stiffened the ailing army’s resolve considerably.

Cavalry regiments and three more regiments of foot slipped quietly across the Broxburn in the moonlight, skirting the Scottish right wing. Screaming “The Lord of Hosts!” at the pitch of their lungs, the Roundheads stormed into the Scottish camp, catching Leslie’s men sound asleep and completely unprepared.

But the Scots recovered quickly, rising to defend the position against the English cavalry with their long Spanish pikes, muskets and basket hilt swords. In the centre of the line, ferocious hand-to-hand combat erupted between Scottish and English infantrymen, and the tide began to turn in favour of the defenders as dawn broke. Cromwell took a look at the battlefield, and threw all of his reserves into the fight at precisely the right time in exactly the right place.

The Ironsides — never defeated in battle — hit the exhausted Scots in an opening to the left of the infantry fighting and their line collapsed. The English cavalry regrouped and spilled through the gap. The battle had been lost by Leslie’s men in an instant. Cromwell himself marvelled at the work of his cavalry, saying, “they flew about like furies doing wondrous execution.” An English officer put it a little more succinctly: “The Scots were driven out like turkeys.”

The English victory was so complete that Cromwell broke into uncontrollable laughter amid the agonised screams of the wounded from both sides and the shattering silence of the bodies scattered two and three deep in places across the Dunbar battlefield. It was what the clerics subsequently called a “religious manifestation,” a fairly common occurrence among deeply religious men of all faiths caught in battle during the Middle Ages and early Renaissance. One Puritan preacher described Cromwell as “drunken of the spirit and filled with holy laughter” at Dunbar. An observer named Aubrey wrote in his book “Miscellanies” a few years after the restoration that Cromwell “was carried on with a divine impulse. He did laugh so excessively as if he had been drunk. The same fit of laughter seized him just before the Battle of Naseby. ‘Tis a question undecided whether Oliver was more of the enthusiast, or the hypocrite.”

The battle was no laughing matter for Scotland. With 3,000 soldiers killed, it turned into the worst rout ever endured by Scottish soldiers, who threw down their arms and fled by the thousands into the countryside. They were chased down, killed or captured by Cromwell’s cavalry as far as eight miles behind the original Scottish line. In Scottish history, the defeat became known sarcastically as “the Race of Dunbar.”

The English booty included Leslie’s entire baggage train, all of the Scottish artillery, 15,000 stands of arms and 200 regimental pennants. When news of the victory reached London, ecstatic members of the Rump Parliament resolved that a Dunbar medal should be struck for both officers and men. It was the first such military medal ever issued in Britain. There was no other until the Battle of Waterloo, a century and a half later.

In addition to the 3,000 Scots killed at Dunbar, another 10,000 were taken prisoner. Some English historians say Oliver Cromwell lost only 40 men killed and wounded. But that has to be taken with a grain of salt, given the intensity of the first hour of fighting. After the battle ended, Cromwell simply could not handle 10,000 prisoners.

About 5,000 Scots described in an English document as “those wounded and those fatigued by flight” were released almost immediately on parole. But Cromwell ordered 5,100 Scottish soldiers marched south from Dunbar into captivity in England as quickly as possible, fearing the Scots might organise a counter-attack aimed at freeing and re-arming the prisoners.

The English also had big plans for the prisoners they kept. A document from the English Calendar of State Papers issued during the period spells out the disposition of “Scotch rebel prisoners.” Initially, the plan was to “execute all ministers and officers.” That was subsequently changed to execution of one in 10 “of the common sort . . . one forced to confession . . . the rest sent to the plantations.”

There is no evidence of arbitrary executions. Instead, the Scots were all to be enslaved, sold and deported to Ireland or across the Atlantic for indentured servitude in the New World colonies. Fighting men from the losing side had suddenly become beasts of burden, a marketable commodity on a grand scale. But first came what could well be called the Durham Death March, a disgusting stain on English military and social history generally glossed over by British historians then and now.

Instead of counter-attacking, General David Leslie prudently fled with the skeleton of his once-mighty army to easily defended Stirling, the gateway to the Highlands. He left Edinburgh undefended and open to a triumphant Oliver Cromwell. The victorious New Model Army took possession of the city on Sept. 7, 1650, four days after Dunbar, but the Scottish garrison in Edinburgh Castle above the city held out until December.

A much different fate awaited the 5,100 Scottish prisoners, who began a brutal eight-day march of 118 miles south to the English cathedral city of Durham. In the hours that followed the battle, Cromwell put his Newcastle commander Sir Arthur Haselrigge, Member of Parliament for Leicester, in charge of the prisoners. The march began at the crack of dawn on September 4th, and the prisoners finally arrived in Berwick, 28 miles to the south, well after dark that night. Scots escaped in droves along the road to Berwick and their English captors offered those recaptured no quarter, killing dozens of the unarmed escapees.

The English foot soldiers and cavalrymen escorting the prisoners had little food, eating mainly Scottish supplies captured from Leslie’s baggage train. There was virtually nothing to feed the Scots. Civilians along the route occasionally risked English vengeance and tossed them bread or whatever else could be spared, which wasn’t much after a summer of fighting in the area.

The prisoners quenched their thirst from puddles of rainwater and fetid ditches. They began dying — first from wounds, then from sickness, and later starvation. It turned into a death march, a forerunner of the Bataan death march endured by American prisoners captured by the Japanese after the fall of Corregidor in the Second World War.

Three days after the forced march to Berwick, the bedraggled and drenched Scots shuffled into Morpeth, where they were quartered in a farmer’s large walled cabbage field. Many had gone without food for several days, thanks to a Scottish soldierly habit of fasting for a day or two before a major battle to sharpen the reflexes. At Morpeth, “they ate up raw cabbages, leaves and roots,” Haselrigge wrote in a letter to Parliament. “So many, as the very seed and labour at four-pence a day was valued at nine pounds. They poisoned their bodies.

As they were coming from thence to Newcastle, some died by the wayside.” By the dozens, then the hundreds as uncontrolled dysentery and typhoid fever swept through the Scottish ranks.

At Newcastle, Haselrigge had them put into “the greatest church in town” — St. Nicholas’ Church — for the night. More prisoners died among the pews, and 500 others were unable to continue the march the following morning. The last agonising stretch took those who could still walk from Newcastle down to Durham, leaving a trail of dying men and corpses stiffening in the early fall frost along the side of the road. Approximately 1,500 prisoners were lost during the march. Some escaped, but most died of disease and wounds or were killed by their captors while attempting to flee home to Scotland.

Late in the afternoon of September 11, about 3,000 surviving Scots staggered into Durham Cathedral, a magnificent Norman structure on the site of an abbey originally built by monks more than 1,000 years ago, in 997. Built by Catholics and taken over by Anglicans during the era of Henry VIII, the cathedral fell on hard times a century later because of religious ferment between Puritans and Presbyterians on both sides of the border.

Even before the civil wars, the region was regularly raided by the quarrelsome border clans. A Scottish army occupied the city in 1640 and held it for two years. The Scots confiscated money from the church to feed their troops. When the gold and silver coins were slow in coming, the Scots broke into the cathedral, smashing its priceless font and cathedral organ to pieces as a warning. Ten years later, when the defeated Scots of Leslie’s army were herded into the cathedral, they were given no fuel and little food.

“I wrote to the mayor [of Durham] and desired him to take care that they wanted for nothing that was fit for prisoners,” Haselrigge later insisted. “I also sent them a daily supply of bread from Newcastle . . . but their bodies being infected, the flux [dysentery] increased.”

Haselrigge proudly told his fellow members of parliament back in London that his cathedral prisoners were provided with “pottage made with oatmeal, beef and cabbage — a full quart at a meal for every prisoner.” He also told how his officers set up a hospital for the sick and wounded in the adjoining Bishop’s Castle, where patients were stuffed with “very good mutton broth, and sometimes veal broth, and beef and mutton boiled together. I confidently say that there was never the like of such care taken for any such number of prisoners in England.”

That may have been what Haselrigge ensconced in Newcastle thought was happening, but his rank-and-file English guards in Durham were getting rich quick by getting away with murder. Tons of supplies coming in from Newcastle and “60 towns and places” in the Durham area were being stolen by the cathedral guards. Some of the food was sold to the prisoners for whatever money or personal jewelry they had managed to retain.

Most of the prisoners’ rations went at cut-rate prices to merchants and grocers in the area. There is general agreement among British historians that Haselrigge did his best for the prisoners, and had no real idea of what was actually going on. The harsh reality is that very little of the food ever found its way into Scottish stomachs. “Notwithstanding all of this, many of them died — and few of any other disease than the flux,” a perplexed Haselrigge wrote. “Some were killed by themselves, for they were exceedingly cruel one towards the other.

If any man was perceived to have any money, it was two to one he was killed before morning and robbed. If any had good clothes that [a prisoner] wanted, he would strangle the other and put on his clothes. They were so unruly, sluttish and nasty that it is not to be believed. They acted like beasts rather than men.” No wonder. The prisoners were dying at an average rate of 30 a day in the cathedral. That rate probably hit 100 or more daily by the middle of October, as starvation and murder set in and the dysentery infection rate peaked.

The English commandant also insisted from Newcastle that his prisoners were getting an ample supply of coal to warm them as winter drew closer — at least that’s what the men in charge of the cathedral were telling him. “They had coals daily brought to them, as many as made about 100 fires both night and day. And straw to lie on.” But it appears the coal, like the food, was ending up everywhere except inside Durham Cathedral.

Simply to stay alive, the Scots burned every sliver of wood in the church — the pews, the altar, anything that would keep them warm, regardless of religious significance. Strangely, the only combustible object that survived was Prior Castel’s Clock, installed in the cathedral in the early 1500s under the great Te Deum Window. It was made primarily of wood, and running perfectly the following spring when most of the surviving Scots were shipped out to the New World as indentured slaves.

The one-handed clock may have been left intact because of the decorative Scotch Thistle carved into the top of its wooden casing. It is running to this day in Durham Cathedral, its face divided into 48 segments to measure the day in quarters of an hour rather than the much more familiar 60-minute format.

The Scots also savaged the cathedral tombs of one of England’s most prominent families – the Nevilles, who had defeated King David II and his Highlanders at the Battle of Neville’s Cross in 1346. The Nevilles became the Lords of Raby in the early 13th century, and remained one of the most influential families in England throughout the Middle Ages.

The plundered and wrecked tombs were those of Ralph, fourth Baron Neville, who died in 1367, and Alice, his wife; John, fifth Baron Neville who died in 1388, and his wife Matilda. Theirs were the first lay burials allowed in the cathedral. The desperate Scots were probably searching for jewels buried with the Nevilles that could be traded for supplies with their English captors. The Nevilles’ tombs were ripped apart, their bones scattered or burned.

By the end of October 1650, approximately 1,600 Scots had died horrible deaths in Durham’s much-revered House of God. Only 1,400 of the 5,100 men who started the march from Dunbar in September were still alive less than two months later, when England’s traders in human flesh came for them. Nine hundred of those survivors went to the New World, mainly Virginia, Massachusetts and Barbados colony in the Caribbean. Another 500 were indentured the following spring to Marshall Turenne for service in the French army, and were still fighting seven years later against the Spanish, side by side with a contingent of English soldiers sent over by Cromwell.

The shocking reality is that far more Scots died as English prisoners than were killed at Dunbar. In Durham, disposal of the bodies had become a major problem. The mystery of what became of them was not solved until almost three centuries later, in 1946, when workers installed a central heating system in the cathedral’s music school. They came upon a mass grave while digging a trench for heating pipes on the north side of the cathedral. That grave went in a straight line from the cathedral’s North Door under a line of trees and then under the music school. The bodies had been buried without coffins or Christian services. The corpses had been tossed into the trench, one on top of the other, like so much garbage.

To this very day, there is no memorial of any kind to these unknown Scottish soldiers. They rest in anonymity in what they would have regarded as foreign soil, far from their homes and the graves of their loved ones.”
==O==
“William Gowen, alias Smith,” Philip Chesley and Thomas Footman were convicted of quarreling with James Middleton at Oyster River [later called Dover], New Hampshire, ac­cording to “History of Durham, New Hampshire.” This volume reports that “William Gowen, alias Smith,” was taxed at Oyster River in 1659.

“William Smith, alias Gowin,” was fined “for fighting and bloodshed on ye Lords day after ye afternoone meeting,” June 30, 1668. “Elaxander Gowing,” who “History of Durham, New Hampshire” reported as the same man, was taxed at Oyster River in 1661.

William Alexander Gowen was married May 14, 1667 in Kit­tery to Elizabeth Frost, daughter of Nicholas Frost and Bertha Cadwalla Frost, according to “John Salter, Mariner,” a vol­ume, written by W. T. Salter and published in 1900. Nicholas Frost is believed to be the earliest documented ancestor of the Gowen family in New England. He died in 1663, and Elizabeth Frost Gowen brought to her marriage a dowry of £105:12:6.

William & Elizabeth (Frost) Gowen

William Gowen b. 10 May 1640 Scotland d. 2 April 1686 Kittery, Maine Married Elizabeth Frost 14,
May 1667, Kittery, York, Maine.

Children:

1. Nicholas
B. 1667: Kittery, York, Maine
M. 1694: Abigail HODSDON: York, Maine
D. 1741:

2. John
B. 19 Nov 1668: Kittery, York, Maine
M.12 Oct 1691: Mercy HAMMOND:
D. 9 Jan 1733: Kittery, York, Maine .

3. William Jr.
B. 1672: Kittery, York, Maine
D. 12 Oct 1691: Kittery, York, Maine .

4. Elizabeth
B. 1673: Kittery, York, Maine
M. 11 Feb 1694: Alexander FERGUSON: Kittery, York, Maine
D. .

5. James
B. 29 Mar 1675: Kittery, York, Maine
M. 3 Mar 1701: Mary WHEELWRIGHT:
D. 1728: .

6. Margaret
B. 15 Nov 1678: Kittery, York, Maine
M. 17 Mar 1695: Daniel EMERY: Kittery, York, Maine
D. 21 Nov 1751:

7. Lemuel
B. 9 Feb 1680: Kittery, York, Maine
M. 5 Jan 1709: Sarah MOUNTFORD: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts
D. 21 Apr 1727: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts (Granary Burying Grounds)

8. Sarah
B. 30 Mar 1684: Kittery, York, Maine
M. 1698: William SMITH:
D. .

Elizabeth Frost was a daughter of

Nicholas FROST

B. 25 April 1585 at Tiverton, Devonshire, England
M. January 1630
D. 20 July 1663 at Kittery, York, Maine

Bertha CADWALLA

B. 14 February 1610 at Tiverton, Devonshire, England
D. 4 July 1650 at Kittery, York, Maine

There is conclusive evidence that Nicholas Frost was on the coast of Maine as early as 1632. He probably returned to England for his family [Bertha and two sons, Charles and John] as they sailed to America in April of 1634 on the ship ‘Wulfrana’, mastered by Alwin Wellborn, which left Plymouth, Devonshire, England in April arriving at Little Harbor in America in June 1634.

Within the next two years, the family removed to Leighton’s Point at the head of Sturgeon Creek in Kittery. They were the first settlers in the upper Parish of Kittery. Soon afterwards, Nicholas purchased 400 acres of land on the northeast side of the Piscataqua River, on which he built a small log house, then in 1640 a large two-story house of large hewn logs, which was known as the Frost’s Garrison. He owned one of the largest estates in Kittery on the southern slope of Frost’s Hill. There, Nicholas made his home until his death. In 1640, Nicholas was chosen constable.

In 1649, Nicholas Frost, Captain Nicholas Shapleigh, and, John Heard, were elected the first selectman of the newly in-corporated town of Kittery.

In 1651, he with Nicholas Shapleigh, and Anthony Emery served in the same capacity. Also in 1651, the town of Kittery granted to Nicholas Frost 340 acres of land. In 1653, 20 more acres were granted to him.

Nicholas Frost’s wife, Bertha, and daughter Anna, were captured by Indians and taken to a camp at the mouth of Sturgeon Creek. Nicholas and his son Charles were at York the time, and on their return attempted to rescue them but were unsuccessful; Charles, however, killed a chief and a brave. The next day Charles, his father and some to the neighbors went back to the camp but were too late; the camp was deserted, only the bodies of Bertha and Anna were found there. They were buried near the old Garrison.

Nicholas died in 1663 leaving an estate that inventoried at £640:15:7. There were 1,042 acres of land, 27 head of cattle, 19 hogs, 4 horses, and one Negro boy, besides personal property. Nicholas was illiterate and signed documents with his mark, which was a combination of the letters N and F.

Nicholas was a man of force and leadership, he reared a distinguished family.

Children born to Nicholas Frost and Bertha …..

Charles, John, Anna, Catherine, Elizabeth, Nicholas Jr.

Nicholas Frost was a son of

John FROST

born – 17 November 1558 at Cornbre Hill, Cornwall, England
married – 10 May 1582

Anna HAMDEN

born – 8 October 1565 at Caer Bran, Cornwall, England

Children of John and Anna ….. all born at Tiverton, Devonshire, England ….
John Jr., Nicholas, Anna, Charles, Samuel, Elizabeth.

This file was donated by Yvonne Gowen

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Kittery York County Maine Genweb

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Nicholas Frost was born in 1592 in England, at Tiverton, De­vonshire. He was a son of John Frost who was born November 7, 1558 in Cornwall, according to “Ancestors and Descendants of James Gowen” by Edna Marion Nye Gowen. She wrote:

“In a letter dated October 19, 1897 addressed to the Eliot Historical Society, Mr. George W. Frost of Washington, D. C states that he has in his possession an old writing of which the following is a copy”

“Dec’br ye 27th 1640

Accts of Births, Marriages ffrom the Olde Booke 1546

John ffrost, Borne Nov’br ye 17th 1558 near Carnbro Hill, Cornwall

Anna Hamden, Borne Oct’r ye 8th 1565 near Caer Bran, Cornwall

John and Anna Maride May ye 10th 1582

There Children:

John Borne July ye 10th 1583 in Tiverton
Nicholas Borne Aprill ye 25th 1585 in Tiverton
Anna Borne Oct’r ye 11th 1587 in Tiverton
Charles Borne Dec’r ye 15th 1588 in Tiverton
Samuel Borne Jan’y ye 28th 1591 in Tiverton
Elizabeth Borne ffeb ye 12th 1593 in Tiverton

Nicholas marride Bertha Cadwalla Jan’y 1630 [she] from Tavistock, Bertha Cadwalla Borne ffeb’y ye 14th 1610

Aprill Sailed for America; Arrived in June 1634 in the same year On ye Shipp Wulfrana, Alwin Wellborn, Master from Plimouth, Devon See Olde Book, Charles ffrost

Nicholas Frost

In his family record Nathan Goold wrote that his ancestor Nicholas Frost resided in Tiverton ‘near Lemon Green over against the Beer Garden’ and further that ‘he had a sister who married Charles Brooks, a brazier in Crown Alley, London.’

Wilbur D. Spencer, writing in “Pioneers of Maine Rivers” reports that Nicholas Frost was born April 25, 1585 at Tiverton and was married in January 1630 to Bertha Cadwalla. They sailed from Bristol in 1632, according to “Maine Historical & Genealogical Records.”

Nicholas Frost was recorded as “trading” at Damerill’s Cove in 1632, and he was fined and punished by the General Court of Massachusetts Bay “upon the complaint of Dorchester traders.” On October 3, 1632 the court ordered:

“It is ordered that Nicholas ffrost for thefte comitted at Damerill’s Cove upon the Indeans, for drunkenes and fornication of all which hee is convicted, shall be find £5 to the court and £11 pounds to Henry Way & John Holman [his employers] shall be severely whipt & branded in the hand with a hott iron & after banished out of this pattent with penalty that if ever he be found within the limits of the said patent, he shall be put to death; also it is agreed that he shall be kept in bolts by Henry Way & John Holman, till his fines be paid, during which time he is to bear his own charges”

He was banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony October 9, 1632, shipped back to England and ordered not to return, ac­cording to “Pioneers on Maine Rivers”. In June 1634 he re­turned to New England, sailing out of Plymouth on the “Wulfrana” with his family and, carefully avoiding Damerill’s Cove, settled at Kittery, Maine.

Charles Thornton Libby writing in “Genealogical Dictionary of Maine & New Hampshire,” suggests that Nicholas Frost did not leave New England when he received the sentence of banishment.

Thomas Wanneton of Strawbery Bank Colony [later Portsmouth] befriended them and invited them to live in his home. Later Wanneton gave Nicholas Frost land in area which later became Eliot, Maine.

He was prosecuted again in 1636, according to “Massachusetts Collections of Records.” He was “fined, whipped, branded on the hand and banished for stealing from the Indians and other crimes,” according to “New England Frontier.” One of his associates, John Dawe, was led to the whipping post for “intiseing an Indian woman to lye with him.” The prosecution referred to might relate to his 1632 trial which was possibly assigned an erroneous date of 1636.

He had the distinction of being the first settler of Eliot in 1636. By June 25, 1639-40 he was located at Kittery. At Kittery he signed a petition addressed to the governor July 27, 1639 seeking a pardon from his conviction. His signature was “Nicholas Frost, of Pascattaquay, mason.” His second petition was successful, and Massachusetts removed the decree of ban­ishment. The bounds of his land at Sturgeon Creek were set down about 1640, according to a deposition given by John White, an early settler of that area.

In 1640 he was named constable, and in 1648 he was elected a selectman in the first election at Kittery. In 1648 he made a seven-year lease of his “new house and ground at Kittery” to Jeremy Sheeres.

A legend concerning the death of Bertha Frost and her daugh­ter, Anne was included in “The Frost Genealogy” by Norman Seavor Frost published in 1926:

“July 4, 1650 Nicholas Frost’s wife Bertha and daughter Anna were captured by the Indians and taken to their camp at the mouth of Sturgeon Creek. Nicholas and his son Charles were at York at the time and on their return attempted to rescue them, but were unsuccessful. Charles is said to have killed a Chief and a brave. The next day Charles, his father and some of the neighbors went back to the Camp but they were too late. The camp was deserted, only the bodies of Bertha Frost and Anna were found there. They were buried near their home.”

On October 14, 1651 Nicholas Frost was indicted for conspiring with James Bunker, William Ellingham and others to steal from Mr. Shapleigh. At the same court Nicholas Frost was presented for “saying he hoped to live so long as to wet his bullets in the blood of the Saints”

On November 16, 1652 Nicholas Frost took the oath of alle­giance to the Massachusetts government. On August 12, 1656 he signed a petition addressed to Oliver Cromwell.

In 1658 he was appointed on a committee to “Pitch and lay out the dividing line between Yorke and Wells town­ships,” ac­cording to “Massachusetts Collection of Records.”

On April 30, 1658 he gave a deposition regarding the posses­sion of land by Thomas Crockett in the area some 16 or 17 years earlier. His age at that time was shown as “about 70,” according to “Yorke Documents” Volume II.

Nicholas Frost took Thomas Orchard into his service by in­denture at Bristol, England on March 25, 1662. Upon the death of Nicholas Frost, Thomas Orchard, after arriving in Kittery, transferred himself July 10, 1663 to William Scadlocks and later to Thomas Littlefield, the elder, before May 6, 1664, according to “York Documents,” Volume I.

Nicholas Frost died July 20, 1663, and the inventory of his es­tate was returned to court September 24, 1663. The inventory included over 1,000 acres of land.

Inventory:

His wearing apparell £15:06.00
A homestall of dwelling house, barne and other
outhouses, orchards, cornfields, meddows and
pastures adjoining, contayneing in all
300 acers more or less 205:00.00
A former grant of land of 300 acers frome ye
proprietor’s agent joyneing to his home land 18:00.00
The long marsh, by estimate tenn acers and the
grants of land belonging to itt,
300 acers more or less 60:00.00
Two acers and an halfe of sault marsh in
York bounds 5:00.00
The house and land at Kittery, joyneing to
William Leighton by estimation 30 acers 20:00.00
A grant, 100 acers on the south side of
Sturgeon Crk. 10:00.00
One hogshead of wheat, one hogshead of maulte 3:00.00
7 acers and 1/2 sowed with Inglish grasse 15:00.00
Pease and oats at Kittery 1:16.00
Indian corne and fruite on the grounds 6:00.00
Corn and oats up in ye chamber 1:00.00
Hay at home and abroad 16:00.00
6 oxen att 44:00.00
7 cows att 32:00.00
Cattle in the woods ?:00.00
One cowe one heffer, one calfe 9:00.00
3 heffers, 3 Stears, 1 bull 18:00.00
One Steare, a bull 3 yeares 1-2 oulde 10:00.00
One Steare of 4 years ould 7:00.00
An ould Ox att 7:00.00
11 ould swine att 12:00.00
2 sows 2:05.00
Three Shoatts and 3 piggs 2:00.00
Two ould Carts, one peyre wheels, 1 slead,
Copp irons and roape att 2:00.00
Three Plows and ould Hodgeds 1:00.00
3 yoakes, 3 chaynes, 1 wheelbarrow 1:10.00
3 Hows, 2 spades, one shovell 11.00
1 iron crow, 5 forke tines, ould rakes 14.00
1 Dung forke, 1 cross cutt saw, 1 mattacke,
2 playnes att 10.00

In the kitchen
One muskett, one fowling piece & rest 2:00.00
2 Iron potts, 1 iron kettle, 2 pott hooks att 4:6.00
2 brass kettles skellet & 1 bayson att 3:15.00
2 andirons, one trammell & one peyre of Tonges 10.00
One frying panne, 1 gridiron, 1 spitt, 1 flesh fork 8.00
3 tynn pudding panns, 11 wooden trayes, laddles 9.00
1 scimmer, one lampe all att ?.00
1 wooden morter and pestell, 3 payles 5.00
1 curry come, 12 Trenchers & lumber 8.00

Working Towles
Nicholas Frost was a mason by trade
1 mortessing axe, 2 adzes 7.00
3 Mayson’s Hammers att 7.06
4 augers, 3 chissells, 3 gowges, one square,
1 fore playne 3.00

In the Inner Chamber
1 bedsteade, 1 featherbedd & bowlster, 2 pillows, 1
blankett, 1 peyre of sheets, 1 rugg & coverlidd 9:11.00
One Trundle bedstead & featherbedd & feather
bowlster & pillow 5:00.00
1 peyre of sheets, 1 blankett and Rugg 1:00.001
1 chest, 1 ould blankett and 4 yds of blanketting 1:11.00
Two blanketts and thread 14.00
A remnant of canvice 1.00
1 chest, 2 ould chests 13.00
1 peyre of Compasses, 1 peyre of sheers,
1 Hammer 7.00
1 Table, 1 frame, 1 chayre 5.00
5 pewter dishes and 10 small pieces of pewter all att 15.00
9 pewter spoons 3 Oceanry spoones 6.00
1 Tinn drippine pann 1 brish & 1 Runlett all att 3.00
Prickers compasses and lumber 7.00
Two peyres of Sheetes 1:05.00
2 Bowlsters cases, 1 pyr of sheetes 13.00
2 peyre of Dimitty sheetes 2:00.00
2 pillowbearers att 4.00
12 Napkines, 1 Tablecloth 14.00
6 Course napkins 1 Tablecloth 15.00
1 Warmeing pann att 3.06

In Ye Upper Chamber
2 corne sives 3 meale sives 06.00
8 Sackes @ 40s 1 bedsteade, 1 canvas bed
1 feather bowlster, 1 oulde blankett, 1 ould
rugg 20s 3:00.00
2 saws 16s 5 syths 3 seadds and Tackeling att 15 1:11.00
4 reape hookes 4 Howpes att 11.00
3 bush’s of ground mault att 12.00
3 bush’s of wheate meale & 1 bushel of
Indian meale 13.00
1 Winnowing Sheete,_1 pecke, 1 saddle,
ould one with a bridle 13.00
3 Tubbs and some lumber 5.00
3 pecks of sault and some hopps 1:00.00

In the Cellar
One Chyrne, 2 Kellers 8.00
A milke Ceene 2 Kellers 4.00
2 beere barrells and some rope 8.00
7 yds 1-2 of Course Cayrsey 1:00.00
3 blanketts 1 pillow case ?.00

In the Darie
30 pounds of butter att 15.00
17 cheeses att 1:05.00
4 Cheese fatts & covers & 30 Trayes att 1:08.00
5 earthern panns 6 earthern potts 5.06
4 small earthern vessells 1.06
1 peyre of scales 6 pounds 2 weights 3:03.00
Tallow candles and sugar 5.00
One cheese presse att 8.00
In silver 14:13.07
A servant boy 7 yrs 3-4 14:00.00

Debt due to the estate p book or bill 11:02.00
The estate is Dr to severall persons
===:==.==
On the Whole 24:11.06

p: Edw Risworth
Roger Playsteade
John Wincoll Apprizers”

Charles Frost attested upon oath this inventory to be correct Oct. 3 1663. The Court was held at Wells Sept 24, 1663, and Charles Frost’s bond as Administrator was set at £1000. The addition of the figures in the above inventory brings the value of the estate to about £640:15.7, according to Edna Marion Nye Gowen.

Much data is given on the Frost Family by Wright W. Frost in his book “Frosts and Related Families of Bedford County, Tennessee” in which he seeks to link the Tennesseeans with their progenitor Nicholas Frost.

In April 1942 John Eldridge Frost, Frost Garrisons, York Vil­lage, Maine had in preparation a manuscript of Nicholas Frost.

The life of Nicholas Frost “of Piscataquay” has also been writ­ten by Usher Parsons. His manuscript entitled “Descendants,” 34 pages of handwritten material is on file in the library of the Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence, Rhode Island.

“The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England, 1620-33” compiled a file on Nicholas Frost:

“At Saco Court 25 June 1640, he was sworn as constable of Piscataqua. He was fined 8 September 1640 for non-appearance. He was a Kittery constable, 3 July 1660. He served on a Petit jury, 2 July 1647, 2 July 1650, 17 October 1650, 25 October 1650 and 28 June 1655. He was called for Grand jury duty, 16 October 1649, 11 March 1650/1, 28 June 1655, 4 July 1659, 7 July 1663. He was Timber warden from the mouth of the Piscataqua to the upper part of the river, 27 June 1648.

Estate: Philip Swaddon deposed on 27 August 1673 that thirty-eight or thirty-nine years earlier [i.e., 1634 or 1635] Thomas Wannerton granted to Nicholas Frost “a parcel of land up in Piscataqua River, now known by the name of Kittery which tract of land Mr. Thomas Wannerton gave to the said Nicholas Frost to come to be his neighbor.” On 30 March 1649 Nicholas Frost gave a seven-year lease to Jeremy Sheires on “his new house and ground at Kittery”.

At a court at Wells on 29 September 1663 “Lt. Charles Frost of Kittery, the eldest son & heir unto Nicho[las] Frost lately deceased, hath presented a certain instrument in the nature of a deed of gift made in September 1650 conceiving the said instrument to be the last will & testament of the said Nicholas his father.” The court considered this and other documents, declared this not to be a valid will, appointed Charles Frost administrator of the estate, and ordered distribution of the estate as follows:

Eldest son Charles Frost to have a double portion [including the homestall] and £30 more; the residue of the estate to be equally divided among the other four children, each share to come to £105 12s. 7d.], and specifically William Leighton is to “have liberty to cut 3 loads of hay against the next winter out of Sturgeon Creek Marsh which was formerly his father-in-law’s, John Frost is to have “the long marsh with that 300 acres of land belonging to it, & lying within York bounds 2 acres & ½ of salt marsh, “William Leighton shall have disposed unto him in the behalf of Katterne Leighton his wife’s part,”

“Elizabeth Frost at 18 years of age or when she marries is to have her part,” and

Nicholas Frost at twenty-one years of age is to have his part” including “a house & land at Kittery” and “in the meantime may choose his guardian if he see cause.”

On 5 March 1663/4 Charles Frost [on behalf of himself and his brother Nicholas], William Leighton, John Frost and Elizabeth Frost consented to the division of the estate that had been made, and Charles Frost was released from his administrator’s bond. At a court at Wells on 6 October 1674 there was a report of a dispute over the settlement of the estate, and a committee was ordered to resolve the matter.

The inventory of the estate of Nicholas Frost, taken 24 September 1663, was untotalled and included £318 of real estate: “homestall of dwelling house, barn & other out houses containing in all three hundred acres,” £205; “former grant of land of three hundred acres from the proprietors’ agent joining to his home land,” £18; “the Long Marsh by estimation ten acres & the grants of land belonging to it, three hundred acres,” £60; “two acres & a half of salt marsh in York bounds,” £5; “house & land at Kittery joining to William Leighton’s by estimation 30 acres,” £20; and “a grant of one hundred acres of land on the south side of Sturgeon Cricke,” £10.

He was born about 1595 [aged about 60 on 30 June 1658; aged about 70 on 16 April 1662. He died between 7 July 1663 [grand jury service] and 24 September 1663, the date of his inventory. He was married by about 1632, wife’s name unknown. It is believed that he was married twice.”

John Eldridge Frost published a genealogy of this family when he was still a young man [“The Nicholas Frost Family”]. He was preparing a revision of that volume in the years before his death, but it remains unpublished.

Children born to Nicholas Frost and Bertha Cadwalla Frost [or Mary Bollen Frost] include:

  • Charles Frost born July 30, 1631
  • John F. Frost born August 7, 1633
  • Anne Frost born April 17, 1635
  • Catherine Frost born December 25, 1637
  • Elizabeth Frost born May 10, 1645
  • Nicholas Frost, Jr. born May 30, 1646

Charles Frost, son of Nicholas Frost and Bertha Cadwalla Frost, was born July 30, 1631 in Tiverton. On March 24, 1646-47 he was acquitted by the court “for shooting Warnick Heard for a goose,” according to “Genealogical Dictionary of Maine & New Hampshire.” He was married about 1660 to Mary Bowles, daighter of Joseph Bolles.

In 1663 Charles Frost was named executor of his father’s estate, and being the eldest son, received a double share of the estate for his “care and former trouble.” He received the homestead and 500 acres of land.

In 1682 he was promoted to captain in the militia and ap­pointed a magistrate. In 1692 he was appointed judge of Common Pleas Court. He wrote his will January 7, 1694 while in active military service as sergeant-major for all of Maine. He served as a Deputy to the General Court of Massachusetts for five years.

He was commissioned captain of the militia July 6, 1668. He was commissioned Lieut-Major Aug. 23, 1698. He was ac­tively engaged in military service during most of his life. He served for many years as Justice of the Peace, was one of the Associate Judges of the Province of Maine and was a member of the Governor’s Council of Massachusetts in 1693. On March 4, 1696-97 “Maj. Charles Frost, Sr.” served as a justice of the peace in Kittery.

He was ambushed and killed by Indians on his way home from church. “The Frost Genealogy” states:

“On Sunday afternoon July 4 1697, Major Frost, his wife Mary, his two sons John and Charles, John Heard and his wife, and Dennis Downing were returning from a church service. A mile from his garrison home, a party of Indians had formed an ambush near a large rock at the side of the road. They had stuck some bushes in the ground in front of a log behind which they were concealed. and when the party approached, fired upon them. Maj. Frost and Dennis Downing were killed, and Mrs. Heard mortally wounded. Her husband tried to put her on a horse, but she begged him to leave her and save the children at home. The rest of the party escaped.

The Major was buried near his garrison home. The next night the Indians disintered the body and suspended it on a stake on the top of Frost’s Hill. A party was gotten together who drove the Indians off, and recovered and again buried the body. The grave was covered with a large flat stone on which was cut the following inscription:

“Here lyeth Interred the body of Mr. Charles Frost. aged 65 years Dec’d July ye 4th 1697.”

Mary Bowles Frost died in 1704.

Children born to them include:

  • Mary Frost born about 1661
  • Sarah Frost born about 1662
  • Abigail Frost born about 1663
  • Mehitable Frost born about 1665
  • Lydia Frost born about 1668
  • Mary Frost born about 1670
  • Charles Frost, Jr. born about 1673
  • Elizabeth Frost born about 1678
  • Nicholas Frost born about 1683

John F. Frost, son of Nicholas Frost and Bertha Cadwalla Frost, was born August 7, 1633 in Tiverton. He was married June 1, 1668 to Mehitable Buttolph, daughter of Thomas Buttolph. Their first child was born in Boston January 9, 1669. He was remarried August 24,1680 to Maria Davis. Their first child was born in Boston May 16, 1681, according to the family bible cited by John E. Frost.

Anne Frost, daughter of Nicholas Frost and Bertha Cadwalla Frost, was born April 17, 1635 at Strawbery Bank while the family was living in the home of Thomas Wanneton. She was reportedly killed by Indians along with her mother in 1650.

Catherine Frost, daughter of Nicholas Frost and Bertha Cad­walla Frost, was born on Christmas Day in 1637. She was married about 1654 to William Leighton. Later she was re­married to Joseph Hammond, son of William Hammond. He died in 1697. She died August 15, 1715 at age 82, according to Edna Marion Nye Gowen.

Elizabeth Frost, daughter of Nicholas Frost and Bertha Cad­walla Frost, was born May 10, 1645 at Kittery. One source showed her birthyear as 1640. Edna Marion Nye Gowen wrote that Elizabeth Frost Gowen stated by deposition on two occasions that she was born in 1645.

She was married there May 14, 1667 to William Gowen. For details of her life, see his section below.

Elizabeth Frost Gowen was the great great grandmother of James Gowen of Westbrook and Catherine Frost, her sister be­came the great-great-grandmother of James Gowen as well, being his great- great-aunt.

Nicholas Frost, Jr, son of Nicholas Frost and Bertha Cadwalla Frost, was born May 30, 1646 at Kittery. He became a mariner and a merchant.

Nicholas Frost, Jr. wrote from “Patoxen in Mary Land” [Patuxent River, Maryland] April 28, 1673 to his brother Charles Frost, concerning shipment of tobacco and supplies, adding that, in case of his death he desired his property to be divided between the children of Charles and those of “brother Leighton, when of age”, according to “York Documents,” Volume II.

Apparently his premonition of death was correct because he died in Limerick, Ireland August 1, 1673, according to “Genealogical Dictionary of Maine & New Hampshire.” His estate was settled in Kittery July 6, 1675 by his surviving brothers and brothers-in-law, Charles Frost, John F. Frost, “William Gowine, alias Smyth” and Maj. Joseph Hammond. Elizabeth Gowen, his sister, was granted 60 acres of land at the mouth of Sturgeon Creek for her share.
==O==
William Alexander Gowen was a coroner’s juror at Oyster River in 1659, according to “History of Durham”, Vol. I, p. 83:

“James Morrey, or Murray, was received as an inhabitant in 1658. He died at Oyster River, November 11, 1659. A jury of inquest, impaneled by John Bickford, found that James Morrey was killed by the limb of a tree falling on his head. Among the jurors were William Smith [Gowen], Niven Agnew, Jonas Bines, James Bunker, Thomas Stevenson, Matthew Williams and others, all of Oyster River.”

James Bunker had built the Bunker Garrison soon af-ter 1652, when he bought the land on which its ruins now lie [1913]. The walls, except the gable ends, were of hewn hemlock logs, nine inches in thickness. There were loopholes for defence, afterward enlarged into windows. This was the last remaining garrison of Oys-ter River that was attacked by the Indians in 1694. It seems to be decayed and fallen beyond the power of restoration.”

In Kittery William Alexander Gowen frequently signed his name as “William Smith.” His use of the alias suggests that he might still have some dread of the English authorities. His sons also used the alias from time to time. It was a natural application since the name “Gowen” in Gaelic means “Smith.”

William Alexander Gowen received a land grant at Kittery in 1666 and a grant of a house lot in 1670. On April 13, 1672 “William Gowine, alias Smyth” received a deed from Abraham Tilton “of growing timber of Abraham Conly’s land at Spruce Creek, Kittery,” according to York Deed Book 3, folio 64. He received another grant there in 1674.

William Alexander Gowen was a freeholder in Kittery in 1675. On September 16, 1676 “William Gowine, alias Smith bought all right to lands on the Kennebec River from James Middleton,” according to York Deed Book 3, folio 67. “William Gowine, alias Smith” was appointed administrator of the estate of Tristram Harris, deceased,” October 15, 1677, according to York records. Harris, his comrade-at-arms was killed in a battle with the Indians. The controversy swirled for another 20 years, even after the death of William Alexander Gowen.

Apparently Tristram Harris had promised his estate to the Gowens. A summary was published in “Province and Court Records of Maine:”

“Harris, a bachelor during his lifetime, indicated that he wished to leave his estate to his neighbor, William Smith, for the use of the latter’s children. Smith’s el­dest son, Nicholas, was particularly favored, and he was to receive the house and home lot. Harris was killed in action against the Indian enemy sometime before or during the summer of 1677. In September of that year the Court of Associates granted administration of the estate to Smith; two months later a County Court at York reviewing the matter provided that one half of the estate should be to the use of the children, but that the remainder should be left in the hands of the County Treasurer in Order to satisfy other claims which might be made. One such claim, by John Brady, had already been entered; others followed during the next few years. John Turner, said to be Harris’ brother-in-law, was one claimant. Philip White of Portsmouth, the deceased man’s first cousin, was another. Out of this litigation came a multitude of papers, depositions, copies of court orders, letters of administration. Two of the depositions given below hint at a last minute change of feeling on the part of Harris towards Smith and his eldest son. The present case stemmed from White’s attempt to obtain the “Smith” portion of the estate from Smith’s widow as administratrix to her husband’s estate; thus nearly 20 years after Harris died, litigation still swirled about his estate, which he had wished to dispose of as he pleased.”

Eliza Gowens reason of appeall versus White

The Reasons of Appeal of Eliza Gowen alias Smith, Administratrix to the estate of her late husband, William Gowen, alias Smith of Kittery, deceased, Apellant against Philip White, Defendant, from Judg­ment of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas held at York for the County of York on the first Tuesday of July last to the Superior Court of Judicature to be held at Boston for the said County of York on the last Tues­day of October Anno Domini 1695.

1. That the Judgment rendered at the sd Inferiour Court of Pleas for the now Defendant against the present ap­pellant is erroneous and contrary to Law and ought to be reversed for that an action of Detinue cannot by Law be maintained against an Administrator for withholding goods, chattells etc.

2. That if the Appellant was liable to such action as the Defendant commenced against her there is no evidence to make her lyable to respond the defendant’s demaund for the proof against her if a Judgment of a Generall Court which is still in force for any that appears to the Contrary to the Court and the Defendant must either bring a Scire facias or commence a new action upon the Judgment but cannot bring that originall action and make that Judgment his evidence and ground of action.

3. That there is such uncertainty in the writt for the things in Demand as no Judgment can be rendered for any Execution granted upon such Judgment the Law re­quires certainty in all actions and the things sued for must be certainly set forth & expressed in the writt so that the same may be plain and intelligible to the Court and Jury and the writt claims only one half part of the reall and personall Estate of one Trustrum Harridon, which is as great an uncertainty what it is as may be for. There is no certainty of what the reall Estate sued for is, how many numbers of acres, or wheather they are up­land or meadow, what houses, mills or buildings or in what County Town province or territory they lye in or how butted and bounded all which ought to have been particularly specifyed & set forth in the attachment other wise the reall Estate sued for is as uncertain as the Land in the moon. That the personall Estate is as incertainly specified in the writt as the Reall there being no mention made therein of any particular nor of any value not so much as the name of beds Chairs pewter brass or any manner of the household stuff which ought to have been set forth in the writt otherwise right can not be administered to either party.

4. That the Defendant Doth not shew forth any title to the Reall Estate for he derives his Right from an Ad­ministration granted him by the prerogative Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury which can give him no inter­est in the Reall Estate.

5. That the Action commenced is both for a reall and Personall Estate which cannot be connexed in one pro­cesse all which being duly weighed and Considered by the Honourable Court and Jury the Appellant hopes they will see good Reason to reverse the former Judg­ment and allow her Reasonable Cost.
Thos. Newton, Attorney
for the Appellant”

From “Province and Court Records of Maine”

Inferior Court of Common Pleas, October 1, 1695

The Deposition of William Gowen, alias Smith, aged 51 years: I, being in the Garrison at the house of Capt. Charles Frost in the time of the Indian Warr upon in­formation received by Capt. Frost that the Enemy were near skulking for advantage he gave orders to as many of his men as he thought meet to prepare themselves for a march. Trustrum Harris, now deceased, being one of the number so appointed: he called me out of the house: & declared his mind to me on this manner following: we are now going Said he to hunt the woods after the Enemy & if it be our fortune to meet with them we may expect that some will fall on our Side as well as some on theirs & it may be my portion as soon as another mans: therefore I desire, said he, if it be my lot to fall that you take into your possession what estate I have for the use of your children for to them it is that I design it after me: I thankt him for his good will & told him that it would not availe my children his telling his mind to me unless he signified it to others as well, for it was the manner of the Law to take Cognizance of the Estate of the deceased: he answered me and said what hath any man to do with my giving that which is properly my own to whom I please But Seeing it is so said then I shall as I have opportunity make my mind known to others also & afterward to the best of my re­membrance on the Last week of his Life I came to his house where I found him alone in a time of Eminent danger I chided him for his rashness and carelessness of his own Safety & preservation, & Certifyed him of the frequent mischief Committed by the Enemy upon our Neighbours to which I thought he unnessessarily Exposed himself. I cannot help it said he for I cannot abide to see what I have to go to Ruine but if at any time God shall suffer the Enemy to Surprise me and take my life; if you escape their hands and outlive me, see that you make what best you can to take what Es­tate I have into your possession for use of your Chil­dren & be sure that yee possess your Eldest son Nicholas in this my home Lott & plantation for he it is for whom I have designed it & do desire may possess and Enjoy it after me. These instructions above written I receaved at & from the mouth of the deceased Trustrum in the time of his life as abovesd as wit­nessess my hand.
Wm. Gowen alias Smith”
June 14, 1685″

From “Province & Court Records of Maine”

“The Testimony of William Sanders, aged 23 years: That Trustrum Harris being a Garisoner at the house of my master Capt. Charles Frost, William Gowen alias Smith with his Eldest son being there also in the time of the late Indian Warr in which time I took notice that the said Trustrum would frequently have the boy in his company namely Nicholas Gowen and take him with him to his house and very often express that great Love he had for him in so much that sd Trustrum told me that the sd Nicholas Gowen should be his heir, this he told me of his own accord at least five or six times the last time whereof as near as I do remember was about a week before his Death.
William Sanders
May 16, 1684”

“The Deposition of John Thompson, age 22 years: I witnes that being commanded by Capt. Charles Frost Last year to hunt the woods after the Enemy that Trustrum Harris was one of the same Company also that the sd Trustrum and my self sitting at breakfast to­gether up in the woods above Salmon Falls, I took oc­casion to ask him who would be the better for his Es­tate in case he should be taken by the Enemy he made answer and said he intended his estate for William Smiths Children, only he had somewhat a great love for Nicholas then for the Rest.
Sworn in court,
John Thompson
September 11, 1677″

I. John Morrell of Kittery that about twenty years [torn: several words missing] in company with Trustrum Har­ris and upon some discourse asked him what he Re­solved to do with his Estate whenever divine Provi­dence Should Remove him hence and whether he would not confer it on William Smith where upon he replyed that he was in daily Expectation of a sister of his from England on whom he was Resolved to [torn: several words missing] adding that no bastard alive should Inheritt or possess any thing of his,

Given under my hand John Morrell
July 1, 1695”

From “Province & Court Record of Maine”

The Deposition of Thomas Perkins aged 56 years or 55 years: saith that on the nineteenth day of April 1677 he heard Trustrum Harris Say that the goods Sarah Bredy had in her hands of his he gave freely to her & this De­ponant Saith that he heard sd Harris bid the sd Sarah keep what goods she had of his and not part with it for William Smith and his Bastard should not be a farthing the better for anything he had.

Thomas Perkins took oath to the truth of this above written the 6 of September, 1677.”

Memorandum that on the fifteenth day of March 1687 Jane Perry of New Graveil Lane in the Parish of St. Pauls Shadwell in the County of Middlesex widdow Miriam Randall, wife of George Randall of the Parish of St. Pauls Shadwell, Mariner, came before me Joseph Ri­croft Esquire one of the Kings Majestys Justices of the peace for the County aforesd and Joyntly and Sev­erally made oath that one Mary Harridon was daughter of Trustrum Harridon of near Dartmouth in the County of Devon and was, while living, own sister to Trustrum Harridon who was Eldest son of Trustrum, sd Marys father which sd Trustrum the son was as these Depo­nants have heard killed by the Indians in New-England, & these Deponants further say that the sd Mary Harri­don who when she went by the name of Mabbie Wid­dow, was married to one John Turner of Shadwell, marriner in the Parish church of Stepney. These Deponants very well know the same, for they were present at and privy to the marriage aforesaid.”

“William Gowen, alias Smyth” was appointed to a committee to settle a boundary dispute April 12, 1680, according to York Deed Book 4, folio 36. “William Gowine, alias Smyth” re­ceived a partition deed April 13, 1680 from Charles Frost, John F. Frost and Joseph Hammond, his brothers-in-law, to real es­tate in Kittery inherited from Nicholas Frost, Jr. ac­cording to York Deed Book 3, folio 67.

William Alexander Gowen and James Emery were appointed appraisers of the estate of Jonathan Fletcher June 12, 1685, ac­cording to York Court Book I, folio 37.

In the “fourth month, 1685, Elizabeth Gowen, alias Smith,” and Nicholas Frost posted bond to become the executors of the es­tate of her brother, “Capt. Frost” according to “Maine Historical & Genealogical Records.”

William Alexander Gowen made his living as a farmer and a carpenter and apparently spent his entire life in the new world at Kittery. He died there April 2, 1686.

His estate was inventoried and recorded in York Court records Part I, folio 40:

“Imprimis: his wearing cloths & apparel £05:00.0
Item: one dwelling house barne oarchard with
60 acres of land more or less with ye
Addition 100:00.0
Item: one hundred Acres of land lijng near
Yorke lyne 10:00.0
Item: thirty eight acres of Land by the
third hill 5:00.0
Item: Sixty Acres of Land on ye South
side of Sturgeon Cricke 25:00.0
Item: 5 oxen £15 tenn Cows £7 three
years ould £12 49:00.0
Item: 5 cattle of Too years ould, and fiue
yearlings at £10 10:00.0
Item: Too horses fiue pounds & Thirtene
swine 8 lbs: 10s 8:10.0
Item: In the fyre roume foure gunnes and a
backe sword 3:10.0
Items: 3 Iron potts & Hooks, 3 skelletts,
too friinpanes 2:04.0
Item: 14 earthen dishes & wood, a
Wodden Morter and sume ould twine 0:04.0
Item: 12 spoones, one spinning wheele &
Cards a Cettle two Chayrs & lumber 0:11.0
Item:3 Tramells, Tonges, a smothing Iron &
an hour glass at 0:10.0
Item: in the vpper chamber Wheate peas &
Indean Corne 20s, bed & bedding 40s 3:00.0
Item: Empty Caskes, bedsteads, 3 ould sives
& other Lumber 20s 1:00.0
Item: 2 sackes, 1 winnowing sheets 2 bare
skines saws 1:05.0
Item: a broad axe & Adgs 6s, 4 Augurs
4 Chissells 6s, 1 square compass &
frow, all 2s 0:14.0
Item: in ye yeard 9 hows 10s, 5 axes 8s, 4
pitchforks 3s, 6 wedgs and a rule 6s 1:07.0
Item: 5 beetle Rings 2s, a sledge 12d, An
Iron for horse tackleing 2s 0:05.0
Item: plow Irons 10s, wheels Cart & sleades,
25s 4 yoakes 4 chaines & staples 1 payre of
Hooks 30 3:05.0
Item: ould syths, sickles, tackling & an ould
kniffe 0:05.0
Item: 1 ould saddle & bridle six shillings,
& 2 Hamers 12d 0:07.0
Item: in ye lower chamber a feather bed,
bedstead bowlster 2 pillows two peyre of
sheets & one blankett & one Rugg all at 04:00.0
A trundle bed 2 blanketts & a Rugg, and
too feather pillows 1:00.0
Item: 3 chest 10s one peyr of stillyards
& a warmeing pan 4 glass bottles 3:02.0
Item: 1 bible & diuinity bookes 20s, new
Cloath 40s Cradle gally potts & salve 2s 3:02.0
Item: 6 pewter dishes 15s, 10 small peecs
of pewter porringers & a chamberpott 1:00.0
Item: earthen potts, panns, pailes trays
cheese press 1 churne barrell & lumber 1:00.0
Item: beife & porks 15s, Tallow & Lard
10s, Wood & Cotton 40s 3:05.0
Item: boards logs at severall place 20 lbs.
debts due to ye Estate six pounds 26:00.0
Moore in the Chamber 2 peyre of
shirts & an ould hamaker & a Table
Cloth at 01:05.0
—-:–.–
£265:09.0

Apprised this 21th of May 1686:
John Wincoll, Nicholas frost, [his NF mark]

Elizabeth Smith alias Gowen doth Attest vpon her oath that his Inventory aboue written, Of William Smiths alias Gowen deceased is a true inventory to ye best of her knowledge & yt more do appeare afterwards vpon oath in Court this 21th of May 1686.”

On July 2, 1695 Elizabeth Frost Gowen was sued by Phillip White “for detaining and withholding one half of all ye estate, both reall & personall, belonging to Tristram Harris, de­ceased.” She lost the case and appealed to the next superior court, where the decision was reversed in Boston, Mas­sachusetts in October 1695.

Elizabeth Frost Gowen on March 16, 1700 witnessed a receipt signed by her daughter Sarah Gowen Smith for a distribution of her inheritance, according to “York Court Records.”

Elizabeth Frost Gowen received in 1704 a donation of “1s. 9d” from public funds. She was mentioned as living in the home of her son, Nicholas Gowen when he wrote his will in 1733. She died shortly afterward at about age 92.

Prior to 1961 Barney Alexander Gowen corresponded with Helen Price Gowen, who at that time was 84 years old and nearly blind. She referred Barney Alexander Gowen to her cousin Viola Allen Gowen of Sanford, Maine. Viola Allen Gowen advised that the Maine Gowen family tree had been quite thoroughly worked out by Angevine Wesley Gowen of York, another descendent of William Alexander Gowen. Mrs. Leslie Freeman of York, a niece of Angevine Wesley Gowen, supplied considerable genealogical data from his research.

In several generations, thousands of descendants of William Alexander Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen have been recorded since their marriage 333 years ago. Family historians spanning several generations have collaborated to research their fascinating story.

Children born to William Alexander Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen include:

  • Nicholas Gowen born in 1667
  • John Gowen born November 19, 1668
  • William Gowen born about 1672
  • Elizabeth Gowen born about 1673
  • James Gowen born March 29, 1675
  • Margaret Gowen born November 15, 1678
  • Lemuel Gowen born February 9, 1680
  • Sarah Gowen born March 30, 1684

John Gowen, [William Alexander1] son of William Alexander Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen, was born November 19, 1668 at Kittery, Maine. He became a large landowner in that area, a substantial farmer, a selectman, a mariner and a land surveyor. In 1691 he was married to his first cousin, Mercy Hammond, daughter of Maj. Joseph Hammond and Katherine Frost Hammond, sister to Elizabeth Frost Gowen.

Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born in 1674 at Wells, Maine. Her father was born in 1646 at Wells, the son of William Hammond and Benedictus Hammond.

On October 3, 1693 a strange grand jury report was filed in­volving John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen, according to “Province and Court Records of Maine.” The statement was recorded in “York Deeds,” Vol. 2, page 23. The grand jury indictment read, “Wee present John Gowen alias Smith and Mercy Hamon that was for fornication presentable per the law.”

“York Court Records” Volume 6, page 102 shows on Jan­uary 2, 1693-94: “Mercy Gowen alias Smith, being presented for fornication uppon her humble petition to excuse her ab­sence is fined thirty shillings and to pay five shillings (court) fees, which was paid”. This entry was also recorded in “York Court Records” Vol. 2, page 23.

It is interesting to note that James Warren, Jr. was fined for for­nication at the same time, according to “Province and Court Records of Maine” Vol. 4 by Neal W. Warren.

John Gowen failed to appear in court October 2, 1694, and the court clerk entered “warrant to be issued out for his con­tempt of authority and for his appearance at ye next sessions,” according to “York Court Records,” Vol. 2, page 35.

On March 14, 1700 John Gowen “alias Smith” paid three pounds, six shillings, eight pence to James Gowen “as his part of the estate of William Alexander Gowen as approved by the probate January 19, 1696-97,” according to “York Deeds.”

John Gowen “alias Smith” and Nicholas Gowen “alias Smith”, “both of Berwick in Kittery.” re­quested their neighbors to par­tition between them the land they had inherited from their fa­ther and from Tristram Harris, according to “Province and Court Records of Maine.” Their request, dated July 10, 1700 was to “provide allowance to our mother her thirds and to our brethren and sisters their portions.” John Gowen and Nicholas Gowen agreed January 19, 1702-03 to divide the in­heritance from Tristram Harris in equal halves.

Mercy Hammond Gowen witnessed a deed June 20, 1701, ac­cording to “York Court Records” Volume 6, page 3.

John Gowen was one of the 17 men who founded the First Church of Berwick, Maine December 21, 1701. He was car­ried on the church roll as one of the charter members of the congre­gation.

John Gowen appeared on a York County jury list April 7, 1702, July 7, 1702, October 6, 1702 and January 5, 1702-03. He wit­nessed a deed at Kittery January 21, 1704, according to “York Deeds,” Volume 7, page 28.

On March 5, 1711-12 John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen received a settlement of her in­heritance from the estate of her father, Joseph Hammond.

The settlement contract read:

“These Presents Testify an agreement between Joseph Hamond, Administrator to ye Estate of Joseph Ham­mond, Esquire, late of Kittery in ye County of York de­ceased, on ye one part & John Gowen & Mercy, his wife, of ye Same Kittery aforesaid on ye other part Wit­nesseth that for & in Consideration of ye full Sum of Ninety Eight pounds thirteen Shillings & Seven pence to ye said John Gowen & Mercy, his said wife, in hand well & truely paid ye said Joseph Ha­mond they, ye said Gowen & his said wife. do Accept of ye Same in full Satisfaction for their whole right & Inter­est in ye Estate of ye said Joseph Hamond Es­quire de­ceased, and they, ye said John Gowen & Mercy his said wife, for them­selves, their heirs, Executors, Administrators & Assigns do by these presentments fully remise release & for Ever Quitt Claime Exoner­ate & discharge their brother Joseph Hammond abovesaid his heirs Executors and Administrators all & all manner of Suits, Actions, Cause or Causes of Actions, Accompts, reckonings, strifes, variences, Quarrells, Controver­syes Debts Dues & Claims what­soever of them, ye said John Gowen & Mercy his said wife, from ye begining of ye world to ye date of these presents referring to ye Estate Real & Per­sonal of their said father deceased, Excepting only out of this General release ye widows Dower or thirds in ye hou­seing & lands of ye decedent at ye Expiration of her Term for which ye said Joseph Hamond his heirs etc. ye Sum of Twenty four pounds fifteen Shillings & 3d within one year after ye Decease of their Mother.

It is also further Agreed by ye partys abovesaid that what Ever Debts or Claims Shall appear against ye above­said Estate real or personal ye said John Gowen & Mercy his said wife Shall refund & pay back their pro­portionable part thereof unto ye Administrator & for his Just Charge thereabout & ye said Joseph Ha­mond doth hereby Oblige himself to pay unto ye abovesaid Gowen ye full Sixth part of what Shall here­after Come to his knowledge not yet in ye Inven­tory, In witness where of ye partys have Set their hands & Seals this fifth day of March Anno Domini 1711-12.

Signed Sealed & Delivered Jos. Hamond
in presence of us: John Gowen
Mercy Gowen
John Hill
Bennoni Hodsden
Nicholas Gowen”

On the same day John Gowen sold to his brother Nicholas Gowen his half of the Tristram Harris in­herited land for 15 pounds, according to “York Deeds.” The conveyance cov­ered “Twenty five Acres Scituate in York Township of Kittery being ye one halfe of Fifty Acres of land known by ye name of Trustram Harris out Lot it being the westermost part of said Fifty Acres according as ye Same is Set forth and bounded in A Certain Agreement or Instru­ment in Writting under ye hands and Seals of us ye said John & Nicholas Gowen baring date ye Nineteenth day of January one thousand Seven hundred and two-three.” Mercy Ham­mond Gowen gave up her “right of dower and power of thirds” in the land in a separate acknowl­edgement.

On August 25, 1720 the York County militia ordered that “a garrison or a place of refuge be erected at the home of John Gowen.” The militia later ordered “that the home of John Gowen be made defencible and that Nicholas Gowen, Thomas Weed and their families lodge therein,” according to “Maine Historical & Genealogical Recorder.”

Mercy Hammond Gowen died about 1725. When John Gowen sold his farm, he reserved the “family burying ground.” John Gowen died in Berwick January 9, 1732-33, according to “Colonial Families in the United States.” Graves found at this location were marked only with field­stones. More recent graves there had a monument inscribed “Asa Gowen and wife.”

Children born to John Gowen and Mercy Ham­mond Gowen, according to “Colonial Families of the United States,” in­clude:

  • Dorcas Gowen born August 13, 1692
  • George Gowen born August 10, 1696
  • William Gowen born April 27, 1697
  • John Gowen born May 24, 1698
  • Mercy Gowen born January 27, 1700-01
  • Joseph G. Gowen born November 28, 1703
  • Jane Gowen born May 17, 1706
  • Lemuel Gowen born September 22, 1709
  • William Gowen born July 14, 1715

Dorcas Gowen, [John2, William Alexander1] daughter of John Gowen and Mercy Gowen, was born at Berwick, Maine August 13, 1692. About 1724 she accused John Treworgy of an unlaw­ful trespass, but “he could not be found,” according to court records. Dorcas Gowen died unmarried in 1732.

George Gowen, [John2, William Alexander1] son of John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born at Berwick, Maine August 10, 1696. He died June 30, 1712.

William Gowen, [John2, William Alexander1] son of John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born April 27, 1697 in Berwick. He died July 7, 1713.

John Gowen, [John2, William Alexander1] son of John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born at Berwick May 24, 1698. He became a mariner. He was married Jan­uary 31, 1719-1720 to his first cousin, Elizabeth Ferguson, daughter of Alexander Ferguson and Elizabeth Gowen Ferguson, aunt of John Gowen, ac­cording to “Colonial Families of the United States.” Both were of Kittery,” according to “Maine Histori­cal Genealogi­cal Recorder.”

John Gowen was sued in 1728 by his father-in-law for board­ing his daughter Jane Gowen for four and a half years. Eliza­beth Ferguson Gowen died be­fore 1731, and John Gowen died in 1732.

Children born to John Gowen and Elizabeth Fergu­son Gowen include:

  • Jane Gowen born September 23, 1721

Jane Gowen, [John3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of John Gowen and Elizabeth Ferguson Gowen, was born September 23, 1721 probably at Kittery. Following the death of her mother about 1723 she lived with her grand­parents, Alexander Fer­guson and Elizabeth Gowen Ferguson. Her grandfather sued her father in 1727 for her board for four and a half years. When Alexander Ferguson wrote his will in York County April 28, 1731 he inserted ” I give to my grand­daughter, Jane Gowen, child of my daughter Elizabeth Gowen, deceased, one feather bed at age 18 or at marriage and five pounds of current money when she is 18. Of Jane Gowen nothing more is known.

Mercy Gowen, [John2, William Alexander1] daughter of John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born January 27, 1700-01. She was married March 19, 1726-27 in Gloucester, Massachusetts to Moses Riggs.

Joseph G. Gowen, [John2, William Alexander1] son of John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born November 28, 1703 at Kittery. In 1726 he was married to Elizabeth Ford, daughter of Stephen Ford and Elizabeth Hammond Ford, be­lieved to be a sister to Mercy Hammond Gowen. Stephen Ford and Elizabeth Hammond Ford were married in 1701. Stephen Ford was the son of William Ford and his wife, Mary who were married in 1663. William Ford, who was the son of Timothy Ford, died in 1682. Mary Ford was born in 1644 and died in 1708.

Joseph G. Gowen was a mariner all his life. After their mar­riage his wife was admitted to the church December 24, 1727.

Joseph G. Gowen paid taxes on his property in the years of 1727, 1734 and 1744. He gave to I. Foster, a mortgage and dis­charged it in 1736. His taxes were abated for 1735 and 1740. These were possibly years in which he was in the king’s service in the Royal Navy. In 1735 he purchased a house and lot from James Day and he deeded to three chil­dren Hammond Gowen, William Gowen and Elizabeth Gowen a house in 1747. In 1748 he was taken into court by Day in a suit concerning a levy “on part of.”

He was lost at sea in a storm off Cape Fear, North Carolina in 1747, according to “Genealogies and Estates in the Town of Charlestown, County of Middlesex, State of Mas­sachusetts, 1629-1818,” published by Thomas Wyman in Boston in 1879. Charlestown was later incorporated as part of Boston, Mas­sachusetts. Another source states that he was lost at sea in 1752.

Administration of the estate, valved at 72 pounds, was given to Hammond Gowen on June 19, 1752. [One source states 1753]. A notation in settlement mentions that Ham­mond Gowen had loaned 46 pounds to his father in North Carolina. The admin­istration account also shows payment to Robert Kelley for a coffin.

Children born to Joseph G. Gowen and Elizabeth Ford Gowen include:

  • Hammond Gowen born January 9, 1727
  • Joseph G. Gowen, Jr. born May 10, 1730
  • William Gowen born September 10, 1732
  • Elizabeth Gowen born June 8, 1734
  • Joseph Gowen Jr. [2] born May 22, 1736
  • Abigail Gowen born January 18, 1738
  • Abigail Gowen [2] born October 9, 1743

Hammond Gowen [Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] Gowen, son of Joseph G. Gowen and Elizabeth Ford Gowen and a name­sake of his grandmother, Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born January 9, 1727 at Charlestown. He went to sea early in his life and became a sea captain.

On May 19, 1748, at age 21, he was married to Mary Croswell who was “admitted to the church January 5, 1756.” Mary Croswell was born in 1730, the daughter of Thomas Croswell. Thomas Croswell, was born in 1706 and in 1728 was married to Mary Pierce Pitts [1706-1730]. Thomas Croswell, was the son of Caleb Croswell [1679-1713] who in 1700 married Abigail Stimson [1679-1738]. The parents of Caleb Croswell were Thomas Croswell [1638-1708] and Priscilla Upham Croswell [1642-1717].

Hammond Gowen died of apoplexy on July 14, 1762. Mary Croswell Gowen was remarried in 1763 to Nathan Sargent.

Several legal records concerning Hammond Gowen were listed in “Genealogies and Estates.” Only a few of them have been checked. Tax records are listed for years of 1748, 1756, 1758 and 1761. Hammond Gowen was an extensive land owner in Middlesex County. The inventory of his estate totaled £2,754, and was administered to the widow Mary Croswell Gowen on July 5, 1762–ten days before his death! Very likely this is a cleri­cal error. Mystic River and Bunker Hill were mentioned as reference points in the legal description of the property.

The widow, Mary Croswell Gowen mortgaged “one-half of house, northerly part” to Nehemiah Rand on August 27, 1762. On October 27, 1767 Mary Croswell Gowen Sargent paid off the mortgage.

Children born to Hammond Gowen and Mary Croswell Gowen include:

  • William Gowen born September 13, 1749
  • Joseph Gowen born January 14, 1751
  • Hammond Gowen born January 26, 1754
  • Mary Gowen born May 21, 1755
  • Elizabeth Gowen born December 27, 1756
  • Abigail Gowen born April 9, 1759
  • John Gowen born July 31, 1760

William Gowen, [Hammond4, Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Hammond Gowen and Mary Croswell Gowen, was born September 13, 1749 Charlestown, Mas­sachusetts. In 1764, at age 15, he chose Nathan Sargent as his guardian. He became a goldsmith and a jeweler and became very successful. In 1771, he sold his home and land in Charlestown to Ebenezer Harnden and Michael Negels of Medford.

William Gowen was married April 29, 1772 to Eleanor Cutter, according to “Vital Records of Medford, Mas­sachusetts.” She was born August 7, 1753 at Medford to Ebenezer Cutter and Eleanor Floyd Cutter. On July 19, 1774, he was named the guardian of his younger brother, John Gowen, age 15. His bond for guardianship was cosigned by his brother, Joseph Gowen, apothecary.

“William Gowen,” turned in $289 in Revolution­ary bank notes for new currency in 1779 at “Town No. 96,” unidentified, in Massachusetts.

On April 12, 1783, William Gowen purchased a new home from Seth Blodgett for £500. On October 26, 1784, William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen sold the property to their brother-in-law, John Bishop. Elizabeth Gowen, his sister was a witness to the transaction.

On August 25, 1785, John Gowen and Eleaner Cutter Gowen sold a house for £500 to William Cutter, “distiller,” regarded as her brother. She conveyed the release of her dower rights, and the transaction was witnessed by Joseh Gowen.

William Gowen appeared as the head of a household in the 1790 census of Medfordtown, Massachusetts, according to “Heads of Families, Massachusetts, 1790,” page 149:

“Gowen, William white male over 16
white female
white female
white female
white female
white female
white female
white male over 16
white male over 16
white male under 16
white male under 16”

William Gowen sold to Isaac Bowers “Pew 14” in the Medford Meeting House June 10, 1790. On February 25, 1791 he repurchased “Pew 14” from Issac Bowers. On December 6, 1794 “William Gowen of Boston, Gentlemen” sold “Pew 14” in Medford Meeting House to Benjamin Hall of Medford. Eleanor Cutter Gowen signed her release of dower.

William Gowen died September 13, 1808 at Dorchester, Massachusetts. “Mrs. Eleanor Gowen, widow” died of apoplexy June 3, 1826 at age 72, according to “Vital Records of Medford, Mas­sachusetts.” She was buried at the Unitarian Church, First Parish.

Children born to William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen include:

  • Eleanor Gowen born January 19, 1773
  • Hammond Gowen born August 26, 1774
  • Polly Gowen born October 1, 1776
  • Elizabeth Gowen born January 22, 1778
  • Lucretia Gowen born January 22, 1781
  • William Cutter Gowen born September 21, 1783
  • Hammond Gowen born July 6, 1786
  • Mary Abigail “Maria” Gowen born in 1794

An apparent relative to William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen, Betsy Gowen, 33, died December 26, 1789 “of con­sumption in Boston,” according to “Vital Records of Med­ford, Massachusetts.” She was buried at the Unitarian Church Cemetery in the First Ward in Medford.

Eleanor Gowen, daughter of William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen, was born January 19, 1773 at Medford. Eleanor Gowen was married to William Hall October 16, 1791 in the Unitar­ian Church of Medford, according to “Vital Records of Medford, Massachusetts.” She died in Quebec City, Quebec in 1860.

Hammond Gowen, son of William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen, was born August 26, 1774. He died at 13 months, July 30, 1775, according to the records of Unitarian Church, First Parish published in “Vital Records of Medford, Mas­sachusetts.”

Polly Gowen, daughter of William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen, was born October 1, 1776 in Medford. Of this individual nothing more is known.

Elizabeth Gowen, daughter of William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen, was born January 22, 1778 in Medford. She was married about 1795, husband’s name McGee.

Lucretia Gowen, daughter of William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen, was born January 22, 1781 in Medford. She was married about 1799 to John Brooks, a merchant. She died September 1807, and he was remarried to her younger sister, Abigail “Maria” Gowen.

William Cutter Gowen, son of William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen, was born September 21, 1783 in Medford. As a young man, he went to sea, making voyages down the east coast to Cuba. Upon the death of his father in 1808, he gave his power of attorney to John Brooks, his brother-in-law. In 1810 he purchased a home on Spring Street in Medford from William Hawes.

About 1811, he removed to Cuba and established residence in Havana, then the third largest city in the western hemisphere. William Cutter Gowen saw the business opportunities in Cuba, but realized that the Spanish franchise system stifled free enterprise there and returned to Boston. On October 10, 1815, William Cutter Gowen, “former resident of Cuba, but now of Boston, merchant,” bought a new brick building on Fort Hill from his brother-in-law, John Brooks and his second wife, Abigail “Maria” Gowen Brooks who signed a release of her dower. In that year, he also bought “property in Hamilton” from James Hooper.

In 1817, the Cuban government suppressed the tobacco monopoly, and William Cutter Gowen immediately returned to Havana. In that year he, “former resident of Boston, now of Havana, Cuba in consideration of $1 paid by his mother, Eleanor Gowen of Boston and further consideration of love and affection; leases to her for and during her natural life the house and land on Fort Hill, Boston, being the whole of the estate conveyed to him by John Brooks, said premises late in occupation by said Brooks.”

John Brooks experienced severe financial reverses shortly afterward and died in 1823, leaving his widow, Abigail “Maria” Gowen Brooks and their children almost penniless. She immediately sailed to Cuba to join her brother, William Cutter Gowen who had established a large tobacco plantation at Matanzas, Cuba.

As the health of his mother began to fail, the Fort Hill property was returned to him. William Cutter Gowen, “of Matanzas, Cuba” in 1825 sold the property to Ann Hale and took her mortgage in the transaction.

William Cutter Gowen died the following year, and Abigail “Maria” Gowen Brooks inherited his large, successful tobacco plantation and sudden riches. With this wealth, she was able to enjoy travel and the pursuit of culture. She left the Cuban enterprise in the hands of elder son, Edgar Brooks and in 1829 was living in Hanover, New Hampshire.

Hammond Gowen, son of William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen, was born July 6, 1786. In 1831, he was a merchant living in Quebec City, Quebec.

Mary Abigail “Maria” Gowen, daughter of William Gowen and Eleanor Cutter Gowen, was born in 1794 in Medford. Her father died when she was 14, and her sister, Lucretia Gowen Brooks and her husband, John Brooks, a merchant tailor took her in and provided her education. Lucretia died in 1907, and John Brooks was remarried to the 16-year-old Mary Abigail “Maria” Gowen. Her baptismal name was simply Abigail Gowen. In 1819, the General Court of Massachusetts permitted her to take the name Mary Abigail Brooks and she was rechristened by that name at King’s Chapel in Boston July 31, 1819.

In 1823, John Brooks died in poverty and left his widow and their sons penniless. Her brother, William Cutter Gowen, immediately invited her and her sons to come and live on his tobacco plantation in Cuba. Three years later, William Cutter Gowen, died and left his immensely successful tobacco plantation to Abigail “Maria” Gowen Brooks.

It was there that she began to express her talent for poetry. Under the penname of “Maria del Occidente” she wrote the first canto of “Zophiel” which was soon published.

In 1829, she was living in Hanover, New Hampshire where she was actively seeking an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy for her youngest son, Horace Brooks. He wrote:

“My mother’s special characteristic was her individuality. She generally succeeded in her endeavors. For instance, she applied to have me sent to West Point, so sent me to Washington in 1829 with letters, etc. The appointment was promised, but by some influence was over-ruled. She then took me to Hanover, New Hampshire with a view to my entering Dartmouth College. In the meantime, she went with her brother Hammond Gowen of Quebec to Europe in 1830 where she visited Southey [Robert Southey, famous English poet of Bristol, Gloucestershire]. With Southey’s advice, she got out a London edition of “Zophiel.” She was introduced to the Marquis de Lafayette who was so pleased with her that he asked if he could be of any service to her. ‘Yes,’ said she, ‘you may get my son into West Point.’ Upon this, Lafayette wrote to Chief Engineer Bernard, and the appointment of a cadet came to me.”

Horace Brooks entered the Academy in 1831 and was graduated as a second lieutenant in 1835. Lt. Brooks was stationed at the Academy from 1836 to 1839, and Mary Abigail “Maria” Gowen Brooks lived with him. When he was transferred to Ft. Hamilton, New York in 1840, she accompanied him. During this period, she continued to write poetry and published “Idomen” in 1843.

Mary Abigail “Maria” Gowen Brooks sailed for Cuba for the last time in December 1843 and died at Matanzas November 11, 1845 at the age of 51. Horace Brooks wrote, “She was buried at Limonal by the side of my two brothers.” One of the brothers is suggested as a half brother, the son of Lucretia Gowen Brooks.

Of his mother Horace Brooks stated:

“My mother was quite a linguist. She read and wrote fluently in French, Spanish and Italian; she also sang many songs in these tongues. She was a hard student and a woman of much research, and very particular to obtain her authority from the original; and often attempted, with the assistnce of some friend, the translation of obscure languages. I remember how she kept by her a Persian grammar and often referred to it. She was also quite an artist, and several pieces painted by her in water-colours were hanging up about her rooms. She was a constant attendant at church and always carried with her an English edition of the services of the church. She was very particular about her own language, disliked all interpolations, and always referred to ‘Johnson and Walker.’ It was delightful to hear her converse. Her knowledge of present and past events and of the prominent characters of history was astonishing. She would tell anecdotes of persons so varied and interesting that her quiet and unassuming conversation was sought and listened to by many distinguished persons.”

Rufus Wilmot Griswold, critic, anthologist and editor of “Graham’s Magazine,” wrote of her work in “Encyclopedia of American Literature.” He described her as a “student of wide and accurate information, capable of thought and research quite unusual for a woman of her time.”

An account of the life and works of Mary Abigail “Maria” Gowen Brooks written by Zadel Barnes Gustafson was published in “Harper’s Monthly” in January 1879.

???????????
It is believed that among his chil­dren was:

………….

  • Medford Gowen born about 1795

Medford Gowen, [Hammond4, Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] believed to be the son of William Gowen, was born about 1795, probably in Charleston. He became a gold­smith. Medford Gowen was married about 1820 to Eleanor Cutter, daughter of Ebenezer Cutter, Jr. Ebenezer Cutter, Sr, her grandfather, was born April 29, 1772 and died in June 1826.

Eight children were born to Medford Gowen and Eleanor Cut­ter Gowen, names unknown, however it is believed that their names are recorded in “Cutter Genealogy.”

Joseph Gowen, [Hammond4, Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Hammond Gowen and Mary Croswell Gowen, namesake of his grand­father Joseph G. Gowen, was born January 14, 1751 at Boston. Nothing more is known of this individual or de­scendants.

Hammond Gowen, [Hammond4, Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Hammond Gowen and Mary Croswell Gowen, was born Jan­uary 26, 1754 in Boston. He became a physician. It is believed that his will was administered April 2, 1783, probably at Charlestown. Nothing more is known of Dr. Hammond Gowen or descendants.

Mary Gowen, [Hammond4, Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of Hammond Gowen and Mary Croswell Gowen, was born May 21, 1755, probably at Charlestown. In 1773 she was married to David Vinton, be­lieved to be a de­scendant of John Vinton who appeared in Lynn in 1648, ac­cording to “Vinton Memorial.” She died September 19, 1775, and he died December 3, 1778.

One son was born to them:

  • David Vinton born in January 1774

David Vinton, son of David Vinton and Mary Gowen Vinton, was born in Medford, Massachusetts in January 1774, ac­cording to Eleanor Vinton Clark Murray, a descendant. He was married in Providence, Rhode Island May 17, 1774 to Mary Atwell who was born May 10, 1773. In 1807, he died in 1830 in a visit to Kentucky. Mary Atwell Vinton died in Boston May 15, 1854.

Children born to David Vinton and Mary Atwell Vinton in­clude:

  • Alexander Hamilton Vinton born May 2, 1807

Alexander Hamilton Vinton, son of David Vinton and Mary Atwell Vinton, was born at Providence May 2, 1807. He be­came a Protestant Episcopal minister. He was married Oc­tober 15, 1835 to Eleanor Stockbridge Thompson, daughter of Ebenezer Thompson of Providence. He became rector of the Emmanuel Episcopal Church of Boston.

Children born to Rev. Alexander Hamilton Vinton and Eleanor Stockbridge Thompson Vinton include:

  • Mary Vinton born October 14, 1840

Mary Vinton, daughter of Rev. Alexander Hamilton Vinton and Eleanor Stockbridge Thompson Vinton, was born Octo­ber 14, 1840 in Providence. She was married about 1866, hus­band’s name Clark.

Children born to Mary Vinton Clark include:

  • Eleanor Vinton Clark born March 30, 1867

Eleanor Vinton Clark, daughter of Mary Vinton Clark, was born in Boston March 30, 1867. She was married about 1890 to Thomas Morris Murray. She died July 12, 1958 at the age of 91.

Elizabeth Gowen, [Hammond4, Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of Hammond Gowen and Mary Croswell Gowen, was born De­cember 27, 1756, probably in Charlestown. Nothing more is known of this individual.

Abigail Gowen, [Hammond4, Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of Hammond Gowen and Mary Croswell Gowen, was born April 9, 1759, probably in Charlestown. On April 22, 1779 she was married at Walden, Massachusetts to Lt. Thomas Locke, who was reared by William Locke and whose name he used. His real identity is unknown.

Lt. Thomas Locke was a revolutionary soldier from Lexing­ton, Massachusetts who was born June 11, 1754. In 1783 and 1790 they lived at Lexington. He died February 19, 1831 at age 78, according to “History of the Town of Lexington” Volume 2, page 381 by Charles Hudson. He was buried in Lot 27, East Village Cemetery in Lexington. Abigail Gowen Locke sur­vived until March 21, 1850 and died at age 91. She was buried beside her husband.

Children born to Lt. Thomas Locke and Abigail Gowen Locke include:

  • Abigail Locke born about 1780
  • Attie Locke born about 1781
  • Mary Locke born January 18,1783
  • Betsy Locke born about 1786
  • Sally Locke born about 1787
  • Zilpha Locke born about 1788
  • Martha Locke born about 1789
  • Otis Locke born February 1790

Mary Locke, daughter of Lt. Thomas Locke and Abigail Gowen Locke, was born at Lexington, January 18, 1783. About 1801 she was married to Elias Crafts of Lexington.

Sally Locke, daughter of Lt. Thomas Locke and Abigail Gowen Locke, was born about 1787, probably at Lexington. She was married about 1803, husband’s name Nichols.

Otis Locke, son of Lt. Thomas Locke and Abigail Locke, was born February 26, 1790 in Lex­ington. He was married to Kezie Harrington about 1815. He died June 25, 1851.

Children born to Otis Locke and Kezie Harrington Locke in­clude:

  • George Augustus Locke born in 1817
  • William Gowen Locke born in 1819

George Augustus Locke, son of Otis Locke and Kezie Har­rington Locke, was born in 1817 in Lexington. Later he moved to Charlestown and be­came a merchant and ship bro­ker. About 1840 he was mar­ried to Lucretia Orme Benson. George Au­gustus Locke died in 1873 probably at Boston in the area of the town previously called Charlestown.

Children born to George Augustus Locke and Lu­cretia Orme Benson Locke include:

  • Caroline Lucretia Locke born in 1842

Caroline Lucretia Locke, daughter of George Au­gustus Locke and Lucretia Orme Benson Locke, was born in 1842 in Boston. In 1875 at age 33 she was married to John Houston Swift, a civil engineer and an accountant, from Charleston, South Car­olina. The groom, a graduate of South Carolina Military Academy and a lieutenant in the Civil War, was 47.

Children born to John Houston Swift and Caroline Lucretia Locke Swift include:

  • Bonnell Locke Swift born in 1877
  • William Street Swift born December 30, 1878

Bonnell Locke Swift, son of John Houston Swift and Caroline Lucretia Locke Swift, was born in 1877, probably in Charleston. About 1900 he was married to Ethel Maud Wood­bury.

William Street Swift, son of John Houston Swift and Caroline Lucretia Locke Swift, was born December 30, 1878, probably in Charleston. He was married July 5, 1918 to Naomi Ordell Kline who was born in Yorkana, Pennsylvania February 17, 1892, the daughter of Uriah Lemon Kline.

In World War I Lt. William Street Swift com­manded Com­pany B, 328th Battalion, U. S. Tank Corps in 1918 in France. He was a Unitarian and made his home in Yorkana after the war.

Children born to William Street Swift and Naomi Ordell Kline Swift include:

  • William Street Swift, Jr. born April 13, 1919

William Street Swift, Jr, believed to be the only child of William Street Swift, Sr. and Naomi Ordell Kline Swift, was born April 13, 1919 in Yorkana. He was graduated from Penn­sylvania State College, class of 1940.

William Gowen Locke, son of Otis Locke and Kezie Har­rington Locke, was born about 1819.

John Gowen, [Hammond4, Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Hammond Gowen and Mary Croswell Gowen, was born July 31, 1760 at Charlestown.

Joseph G. Gowen, Jr, [Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Joseph G. Gowen and Elizabeth Ford Gowen, was born May 10, 1730. It is believed that he died prior to 1736, because in that year another son was born and he also was named Joseph G. Gowen, Jr.

William Gowen, [Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Joseph G. Gowen and Elizabeth Ford Gowen, was born September 10, 1732.

Elizabeth Gowen, [Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of Joseph G. Gowen and Elizabeth Ford Gowen, was born June 8, 1734. It is believed that Eliz­abeth Emery was mar­ried to Caleb Emery about 1754. He was the grandson of Daniel Emery who was married to Mar­garet Gowen.

Joseph G. Gowen, Jr, [Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Joseph G. Gowen and Elizabeth Ford Gowen, was born May 22, 1736.

Abigail Gowen, [Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of Joseph G. Gowen and Elizabeth Ford Gowen, was born Jan­uary 18, 1738 at Boston. Appar­ently she died before 1743. Another daughter, was also named Abigail.

Abigail Gowen, [Joseph G.3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of Joseph G. Gowen and Elizabeth Ford Gowen, was born October 9, 1743 at Boston.

Jane Gowen, [John2, William Alexander1] daughter of John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born May 13, 1706, probably at Kittery. On June 26, 1724 she was married to her cousin, William Gowen. They were the grandparents of James Gowen of Westbrook, Maine. For an account of her life and descen­dants see his section.

Lemuel Gowen, [John2, William Alexander1] son of John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born September 22, 1709, at Kittery. He was married January 25, 1731-32 to Mrs. Judith Lord, a widow, according to “Colonial Families of the United States.” She was the daughter of Nathan Lord, and accordingly, was not a widow, according to “Old Kittery and Her Families,” by Everett S. Stackpole.

Lemuel Gowen wrote his will December 27, 1737 and died at sea shortly afterwards. Judith Lord Gowen was referred to as “a widow” again September 28, 1738 when she was admitted to full communion by the Second Church of Kittery, Maine. The will of Lemuel Gowen was proved Octo­ber 17, 1740.

Source Page: Probate Office, 5, 195.
Name: Lemuel Gowen
Will Text: In the Name of God Amen the twenty seventh Day of Decembr in ye Year of our Lord
one thousand seven hundred and thirty seven, I Lemuel Gowen of Kittery in the County of York
within his Majests Province of ye Massachusets Bay in New England Yeoman being bound a Voyage
to Sea and not Knowing wheather it will please God to preserve my Life and return me in safety to
my Native Country. I Do make and Ordain this my last Will and Testament.Imprimis I Do Resign
and submit both Body & Soul to God in hopes of his favour & Grace in Christ and as to such Worldly
Estate as it has been pleased God to give me in this Life I Will & bequeath in manner & form
following. That is to say I Give & bequeath unto my well beloved Wife Iudith all my Real & personal
Estate to her Disposall for ye benefit of my Children & I likewise appoint my sd Wife Judith my
whole & sole Executrix of this my last Will & Testament Disannulling all former Wills by me
heretofore made In Witness whereunto I have Set my hand & Seal ye Date above written.Signed
Sealed Pronounced & Declared by ye sd Lemuel Gowen as his last Will & Testament in psence ofJno
WatkinsJames fferguson.Thos Emery.Lemuel Gowen (Seal)Probated 17 Oct. 1740.

Judith Lord Gowen filed a marriage intent with Abel Moulton of York County December 2, 1748. They were married De­cember 22, 1748 “for a consideration of 2 shillings,” accord­ing to the records of First Church of Berwick. Abel Moulton of Cider Hill brought Judith Lord Gowen Moulton “and her Gowen children to York.”

Children born to Lemuel Gowen and Judith Lord Gowen in­clude:

  • John Gowen born November 20, 1732
  • Lemuel Gowen, Jr. born in 1734
  • Joseph Gowen born about 1735
  • Nathan Gowen born about 1736

John Gowen, [Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Lemuel Gowen and Judith Lord Gowen, was born November 20, 1732, according to “Old Kittery and Her Families.”. He was baptized September 28, 1738 in the First Church of Berwick.

Following the marriage of his mother to Abel Moulton of York, in 1748 he was married May 5, 1766, at age 36, to Su­sanna Moulton, believed to the his step-sister. The couple filed intent April 19, 1766 showing both to be residents of York. The Rev. Isaac Lyman per­formed the ceremony.

“John Gowen,” Abraham Lord and Joshua Emery were im­prisoned in December 1769 at Berwick, Maine. They were Baptists who had separated from the “standing church” in 1768 and organized a church under the leadership of Joshua Emery. For refusing to pay their ecclesiastical taxes, John Gowen and Abraham Lord were jailed, according to “New England Dis­sent” by William G. McLoughlin.

The household of John Gowen appeared in the 1790 census re­siding at Berwick. According to “Heads of Families, Maine, 1790,” the household was recorded as:

“Gowen, John white male over 16
white female
white female
white male over 16
white female
white male under 16
white female”

Children born to John Gowen and Susanna Moul­ton Gowen are unknown.

Lemuel Gowen, Jr, [Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Lemuel Gowen and Judith Lord Gowen, was born in York in 1734 probably at Berwick, according to the research of Flora Card Woodford, a descendant.

He was baptized September 28, 1738 in the First Church of Berwick. “Lemuel Gowen” was impressed into military service May 24, 1755 “to serve the King in guarding the stores up the Ken­nebeck River to Ft. Holifax,” according to “Maine His­torical & Genealogical Recorder.” He was married about 1774 to Sarah Hearle.

“Lemuel Gowing” was enumerated as the head of a household in the 1790 census of Kitterytown. The family was rendered as:

“Gowing, Lemuel white male over 16
white male over 16
white male over 16
white male over 16
white female
white female
white female
white female”

Children born to Lemuel Gowen, Jr. and Sarah Hearle Gowen include:

  • Nathan Gowen born in 1780

Nathan Gowen, [Lemuel, Jr.4 Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Lemuel Gowen, Jr. and Sarah Hearle Gowen, was born in 1780. Nathan Gowen signed an intention of marriage with Jerusha Moulton March 13, 1806, according to “Vital Records of York, Maine.” Both were of York.

Jerusha Moulton was the daughter of Ebenezer Moulton5, [Samuel Moulton4, Joseph Moulton3, Jeremiah Moulton2, Thomas Moulton1]. In 1839 they were residents of Kittery.

Children born to Nathan Gowen and Jerusha Moulton Gowen include:

  • John Gowen born about 1808
  • Joseph Gowen born about 1810

John Gowen, [Nathan5, Lemuel Jr.4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Nathan Gowen and Jerusha Moulton Gowen, was born about 1808 in York, according to Flora Card Woodford, a descendant of Cape Neddick, Maine. John Gowen and Hannah Witham, “both of York,” posted a marriage intent May 31, 1834, according to “Vital Records of York, Maine.” On June 21, 1834 the couple was married.

John Gowen died April 8, 1871 at “aged 67 years, 6 months,” according to his tombstone in the family cemetery on Cider Hill. Hannah Gowen died Jan­uary 29, 1873, “aged 69 years, 6 months.”

Children born to John Gowen and Hannah Witham Gowen are believed to include:

  • John Wesley Gowen born January 21, 1839
  • Lydia J. Gowen born February 10, 1841
  • Mary Elizabeth Gowen born in 1845
  • Julia M. Gowen born March 12, 1851
  • Laura A. Gowen born in December 1859

John Wesley Gowen, [John5, Nathan4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of John Gowen and Hannah Witham Gowen, was born in Kittery January 21, 1839. John Wesley Gowen is further identified as the grandson of Nathan Gowen and Jerusha Moulton Gowen.

He was married about 1869 to Hannah Jane Gerry [also ren­dered Gary]. Hannah Jane Gerry Gowen daughter of Joshua and Sally Gerry, was born in Kittery October 27, 1839.

She died of tuberculosis January 1, 1878, and John Wesley Gowen died January 16, 1880. They were buried in the fam­ily burial plot on Cider Hill.

Children born to John Wesley Gowen and Hannah Jane Gerry Gowen include:

  • Angevine Wesley Gowen August 30, 1869
  • Clarence Eastman Gowen born about 1871
  • Annie Jane Gowen born February 10, 1874

Angevine Wesley Gowen, [John Wesley6, John5, Nathan4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of John Wesley Gowen and Hannah Jane Gerry Gowen, was born August 30, 1869 in a house on Gorges Neck, named for Sir Ferdinando Gorges, a member of the Plymouth Company. The site was surveyed for Sir Ferdinando, “the Lord Proprietor of the Province of Mayne” November 11, 1641.

The house that he was born in and later died in was on the home lot of his maternal ancestor, Thomas Moulton. The house was built in 1714 on the York River by Joseph Moul­ton, son of Jeremiah Moulton and grandson of Thomas Moulton, according to Historian John Bardwell. Jeremiah Moulton purchased the property from Sir Ferdinando Gorges, in 1684 for £20.

The site was surveyed for Sir Ferdinando Gorges, “the Lord Proprietor of the Province of Mayne” November 11, 1641. It was described as “a division of 12,000 acres of land amongst the Patentee of Agamentics, made by us Thomas Gorges, Esq, Edward Godfrey and Roger Garde who are acting on behalf of Mr. Sayward’s Patentees.”

Angevine Wesley Gowen was born in a house on Gorges Neck at York. York was known as Agamenticus in 1641 and Georgeana in 1642. The Gowen home and 20 acres of land was later acquired by Old York Historical Society.

Of Jeremiah Moulton, his great-great-great-great-great grand­father, Angevine Wesley Gowen had to say,

“Jeremiah Moulton was a land grabber evidently and maybe some of his deals in real estate would not stand up to the ‘light of day’ any better than his attempt on October 3, 1693 to sell rum without a license. The court records show that he was fined £10 and put under bond of £50 to keep the peace “for threat­ening to shoot with a gun in his hands a constable and a justice of the peace.”

His son Abel Moulton was fined January 5, 1696-7 for “abusive speech.” Abel Moulton was stolen by the Canadian Abenaki Indians who often raided settlers in Maine. He was never returned and was supposedly drowned. Old Jeremiah Moulton was always buying the “piece of land next door” until he became a very large landowner.

Angevine Wesley Gowen, at age four, went to school at a little schoolhouse in Junkin’s Woods on Cider Hill. His first teacher was Miss Ellen Dennett. He was taken to Kittery, five miles away, to visit his Garey cousins and there was enrolled in a small red school­house on Spruce Creek,.

Orphaned when 10 years old, Angevine Wesley Gowen was brought up by his aunt, Miss Julia M. Gowen with whom he resided until her death in 1930, as well as with his uncle Joseph Gowen. Julia M. Gowen was named the guardian of the three orphans.

Angevine Wesley Gowen was a rare man, born with an innate ability to be successful at any project that he undertook. Al­though his schooling ended at age 16, he developed the skills to become a civil engineer and bridge-builder. As a young man he rebuilt Scotland Bridge in York Village, Maine where he was born.

He served a rod-and-chain apprenticeship in 1890 under Samuel W. Junkins, surveyor, and in a short time eclipsed his mentor as a surveyor and mapmaker, adding magnetic decli­nation to the skill. Beginning with his surveying instruments, he became an ardent astronomer and later built his own tele­scope.

When the art of photography began to develop, he plunged en­thusiastically into the field. Many of his photographs of the York area made on glass negatives still survive. He also re­ceived recogni­tion as a violin maker, musician, game warden, farmer, fisherman, astronomer, taxidermist and woodsman, ac­cording to John B. Bardwell.

His fame as a musical prodigy developed early. At age 9, al­though he never had a lesson and could not read music, he joined the town’s brass band. The band met for practice at “Fielding” in the loft of the shop of Capt. Timothy Young on Cider Hill. The band, composed of John Mitchell Moulton, trumpet; George Everett Moulton, bass horn, John Picott of Kittery, “tenor horn” and Charles Young who played the “alto horn,” quickly made room for the talented youngster with the coronet. He became a soloist for the band when it played for “town suppers” and “political speakings.”

The older men wore gala uniforms of blue and white with large brass buttons.

Later Angevine bought a violin for $3.50 from Oliver Jen­ness, a neighbor. He worked for 50c a day at odd jobs until he had the necessary cash. Then he marched proudly into his home and started to play. Initially his fiddle screeching caused his Aunt Julia to send him to the barn to practice. There he played to the cows, day after day, and when he emerged, he had mas­tered, entirely by ear, “The Irish Wash­erwoman.” Jenness was amazed when Angevine played “Pop Goes the Weasel,” for him, inserting difficult pizzicato with great skill. When he realized the limitations of his cheap vio­lin, Angevine went into the woods, selected some hardwood stocks and made his own violin, one that possessed vibrant deep rich tones.

His historical research brought him in touch with Col. Charles Edward Banks with whom he collaborated in writing “History of York, Maine.”

He had maintained a journal through his lifetime which he called “Cider Hill Annals.” His literary skills attracted the interest of Mrs. Catharine McCook Knox, a literary agent of Wash­ington, D.C. who recognized his genius. Thus began a fast friendship that lasted a lifetime. Flora Card Woodford of Cape Neddick, Maine wrote October 19, 1994 that also wrote “Unknown History of York, Maine” which exists only in manuscript form and was being preserved by a cousin.

Angevine Wesley Gowen was a master boat-builder and once mentioned to Mrs. Knox the difficulty he had in building and launching a sloop he constructed. She persisted that he should write an account of this endeavor, but he declined on account of his impending blindness that was beginning to take a toll on his activities. He replied to her inquiry October 26, 1934:

Dear Mrs. Knox,

I received your letter of inquiry this a.m. and am writing in my willow chair by the end of the table as usual. A poor light shines in which I fear will cut this letter short, at least for now. I will do my best how­ever in the few minutes that I am allowed to write.

Now about the boat, the “Winnie,” named after my boyhood friend Winn Campbell whose grave I vis­ited many years afterward at Georgetown, Maine while on detective duty for the State. All this I have told you be­fore. The boat was a 24-foot sloop, of 8-foot beam. It was built in what is now Mr. Emery’s shop and oc­cupied about the whole of the inside of it when onlited, for the shop was only 14’x24′. However, Frank Plaisted and I got her into the cradle and hauled her with his oxen down to the creek and launched her. However, my diary will tell more about that than I can now recall.

Aunt Julia lived in the house, while I built my boat in the shop annexed. And many a goody or wedge of pie or a pinch of black snuff she gave me. She was 80 then and always made me promise to bury her when she died, a promise that I religiously kept. I have many pictures of her and the small home that Milan prepared for her. It is now get­ting dark, and my blindness dictates that I will wait until tomorrow after­noon to continue.

“To write on both sides of the paper makes one bald­headed,” so says my editor, but I am not that yet, though perilously near it. So, ‘So long until tomor­row,’ as Low­ell Thomas says.

Of course, you have recognized Frank P. as the one who helped me launch my boat and to hoist the old Cider Hill Flag the year before. I could tell much more, but eyesight sternly forbids. I often shudder of when I think of climbing those rotten flagpoles and reeving the lines through the blocks for the flag. I, who now with diffi­culty climb a chair to replace an electric light bulb!

Also I shudder to think of my first boat ride in my new “Winnie” with a load of a dozen excited, glee­ful chil­dren and women, including Aunt Julia. The boat was not half ballasted, and a sudden squall would have meant catastrophe. But skillful sea­manship brought us all back safe and sound, and in fact, thus I have tra­versed the Great North [Woods] with canoe and paddle and sailed the briney deep in a 200-ton brigantine through some hard storms. I have yet to wet a stock­ing, and truly, my angel of good luck must have been con­stantly with me. Yet, I may drown in the first mug of beer I drink.

It is now 1:00 p.m, and the sky is fast becoming over­cast and dark again, so that I do not see a sin­gle word I am writing, but write mechanically, as it were, or more by instinct. Good luck. With kindest re­gards, I am, as ever,

A. W. Gowen”

On February 7, 1935, shortly before his death, he wrote again to Mrs. Knox:

“I am so blind now at this time of the year, 15 de­grees below zero here today. I have lost another relative, Willie Gowen, oldest son of Harry, died February 4 in Dover, N.H, leaving a little family, funeral today. I am too sick to go, and also on that account I am revis­ing my will, and relative to my diaries, I am fixing it so you will have full access to them until your work is done. I have failed much since Xmas, and if you will write date of di­ary and subject thereof, as in case of “Miss Taylor,” I can get someone to look it up, and I can dictate it more fully. We have very deep snow and much cold weather. I use only one door now to get out. The rest are all banked nearly to the eaves. Re­gards, A. W. Gowen”

On his property is an ancient white oak tree which was deeded in November 1990 to the Improvement Society of York, a par­ent organization of Old York Historical Society under the terms of Gowen’s will executed 50 years ago.. Gowen who was a surveyor, mapmaker and photographer, indicated that the tree may have been standing as early as 1641.

Gowen’s will also provided for family access to an early gravesite on the property.

“Notary Public Telephone Connection

ANGEVINE W. GOWEN
Civil Engineer and Land Surveyor
Special Attention Given to Magnetic Declinations and Retrac­ing of Old Lines

York Village, Maine
October 26, 1934
Dear Mrs. Knox,

I received your letter of inquiry this a.m. and am writ­ting in my willow chair by the end of the table as usual. A poor light shines in which I fear will cut this letter short, at least for now. I will do my best how­ever in the few minutes that I am allowed to write.

Now about the boat, the “Winnie,” named after my boyhood friend Winn Campbell whose grave i vis­ited many years afterward at Georgetown, Maine while on detective duty for the State. All this I have told you be­fore. The boat was a 24-foot sloop, of 8-foot beam. It was built in what is now Mr. Emery’s shop and oc­cupied about the whole of the inside of it when onlited, for the shop was only 14’x 24. However, Frank Plaisted and I got her into the cradle and hauled her with his oxen down to the creek and launched her. However, my diary will tell more about that than I can now recall. It was used for pleasure and fishing and finally sold to some­one.

Aunt Julia lived in the house, while I built my boat in the shop annexed. And many a goody or wedge of pie or a pinch of black snuff she gave me. She was 80 then and always made me promise to bury her when she died, a promise that I religiously kept. I have many pictures of her and the small home that Milan prepared for her. It is now get­ting dark, and my blindness dictates that I will wait until tomorrow after­noon to continue.

“To write on both sides of the paper makes one bald­headed,” so says my editor, but I am not that yet, though perilously near it. So, “So long until tomor­row,” as Lowell Thomas says

Saturday, October 27. Windy after the rain of last night, and the air is full of leaves–and I am full of company, so I will have to postpone this until later.

Sunday, October 28. Still windy, and the air is still full of leaves and rather dark for my eyes.

Of course, you have recognized Frank P. as the one who helped me launch my boat and to hoist the old Cider Hill Flag the year before. I could tell much more, but eyesight sternly forbids. I often shudder of when I think of climbing those rotten flagpoles and reeving the lines through the blocks for the flag. I, who now with diffi­culty climb a chair to replace an electric light bulb! Also I shudder to think of my first boat ride in my new “Winnie” with a load of a dozen children and women, including Aunt Julia. The boat was not half ballasted, and a sudden squall would have meant catastrophe. But skillful seamanship brought us all back safe and sound, and in fact, thus I have tra­versed the Great North [Woods] with canoe and paddle and sailed the briney deep in a 200-ton brigantine through some hard storms. I have yet to wet a stock­ing, and truly, my angel of good luck must have been constantly with me. Yet, I may drown in the first mug of beer I drink.

It is now 1:00 p.m, and the sky is fast becoming over­cast and dark again, so that I do not see a sin­gle word I am writing, but write mechanically, as it were, or more by instinct. So, good luck. With kindest re­gards, I am, as ever,
A. W. Gowen”

On February 7, 1935, shortly before his death, he wrote Katherine McCook Knox, his literary agent,

“I am so blind now at this time of the year, 15 degrees below zero here today. I have lost another relative, Willie Gowen, oldest son of Harry, died February 4 in Dover, N.H, leaving a little family, funeral today. I am too sick to go, and also on that account I am re­vising my will, and relative to my diaries, I am fixing it so you will have full access to them until your work is done. I have failed much since Xmas, and if you will write date of di­ary and subject thereof, as in case of “Miss Taylor,” I can get someone to look it up, and I can dictate it more fully. We have very deep snow and much cold weather. I use only one door now to get out. The rest are all banked nearly to the eaves. Re­gards, A. W. Gowen”

Angevine Wesley Gowen died in the summer of 1937 and was buried in the family burial plot on Cider Hill.

Following his death, Katherine McCook Knox of Washing­ton, D.C. wrote a tribute to his life and accomplishments which was published in “Old York Transcript” September 3, 1937. An editor appended a note,

“The following is an es­timate of the notable qualities of the late, great York figure, Angevine Wesley Gowen, who had he lived would have been 69 years old on Au­gust 30. Summation of Mr. Gowen’s many humanitarian and intellectual gifts are particularly appropri­ate at this time when the restoration of the old school house is in progress:

“Written August 23, 1937 at York Village, Maine
By Katharine McCook Knox

Rain, pushing straight down through the long dark pine needles, rain quivering slantwise in grey slashes across the white birth. Rain, rain and just the kind of day on which I loved to sit and talk to “Angie” at Cider Hill. Surely if it had been last summer, I would have been off bright and early to visit him. I would have found him at the end of Gowen lane, waiting qui­etly in his “willow chair” by the kitchen window. With his well-modeled head bent slightly forward, he would be listening, lis­tening.

Although from nearby my car looked to him “blue and misty, shining like a ghost,” he never mistook the sound of its motor of the turn of its tires as it rolled down the hill. His failing sight intensified the keen­ness of his hearing, and all his visitors were likewise summed up. As I would enter, he would rise, his strong sensitive fin­gers would unclasp from his gnarled walking-stick, and he would make me wel­come.

Hours of talk we would have, Angevine Wesley Gowen–farmer boy, taxidermist, artist, woodsman, carpenter, boat-builder, bridge-builder, surveyor, en­gineer–fantas­tic it sounds, but true nevertheless. He was as efficient as he was versatile.

A devoted son, brother and nephew who bravely nursed his family through piercing illnesses and never shirked a day’s work. But “Angie” died this past win­ter. Sixty-nine he would have been on this coming 30th of August. Last summer on his birthday we had a party, and he told me quite happily that his “interview with death” was not far away. He pulled out the ring from his piece of birth­day cake. “Now, will wonders never cease,” said he as he tested the metal with his teeth.

Native wit and shrewdness coupled with tenderness and an almost fierce independence of judgment gave his conversation never a dull lapse. Cider Hill 13 and a lit­tle red school house at Spruce Creek, Kittery were his two “Universities.” At the age of 16, he ceased school­ing. How interested he would have been this summer in following up the history and correct restoration of the old York school house which prob­ably opened its roughhewn door in the year 1747. His life as he told it to me was vivid, and Cider Hill and all its “folks” be­came a spreading world.”

Margaret Pearson Tate wrote “when I visited Mrs. Alice Free­man in his home in 1985 she showed me his “Cider Hill An­nals,” the journal he kept during his lifetime. I hope this has been turned over to some historical association.”

The most comprehensive work on this branch of the family has been published by Yvonne Gowen of Surrey, British Columbia, a member of Gowen Research Foundation. Over 10 years were spent in gathering data on the family. Mrs. Gowen, an ac­complished genealogist, assembled data from many sources. Among researchers who assisted were Mar­garet Pearson Tate of Exeter, NH; Almeda Gowen Schofield of Contoocook, NH; Bar­bara Clements of North Hampton, NH; Mary Driscoll of Spring­vale, ME and Mary Ellen Gowen Waugh of Riverdale, MD, also Foundation members.

The Gowen home and 20 acres of land was later acquired by Old York Historical Society.

A niece of Angevine Wesley Gowen, Mrs. Leslie Freeman of York, continued the work, building on his research. Helen Parker Gowen continued research on the family into the 1950s when blindness interrupted her work at the age of 84. She passed the torch to her younger cousin Viola Gowen Allen of San­ford, Maine.

Viola Gowen Allen, a registered nurse, wrote February 11, 1957 that she had an aunt by the name of Abbie Gowen Trafton. Viola Gowen Allen mentioned that she had a daughter by the name of Shirley Allen who was an invalid, having de­veloped polio in 1951. The mother of Viola Gowen Allen was a Hamilton of Waterboro, Maine. Viola Gowen Allen and her husband Robert S. Allen lived on Grammar Road, “1.5 miles from Sandford Square in Sanford, Maine.”

On April 7, 1957 Viola Gowen Allen wrote that her brother [unnamed] died in Minneapolis. “His only son has an infant son, and they are the only ones to carry on the family name. My brother died four years ago, and my father died this past December.” She mentioned a daughter “older than Shirley” who had a six-month-old daughter whose name was Kim Shirley.

On June 23, 1957 Viola Gowen Allen wrote, “Great-grandfa­ther Samuel Gowen deserted great-grandmother and remarried, living in the Chicago area; had children. Chester Gowen, my cousin, died May 2, 1957. His daughter and her husband are coming to live with Mrs. Gowen so the house won’t be sold.”

On August 12, 1962 Viola Gowen Allen wrote that her daugh­ter was a registered nurse and that her granddaughter was six years old. She mentioned that “Mrs. Chester Gowen had a shock [stroke?] and has difficulty speaking. Chester’s daughter and husband moved back from Tennessee to be with her mother.”

Evelyn M. Gowen of Minneapolis, Minnesota wrote May 8, 1956 that her husband, A. S. Gowen, a native of York County, died in Minneapolis May 8, 1956.

On February 8, 1957 Mrs. Chester Gowen wrote, “Stephen had 10 or 12 children, and not many of them here. I have had some correspondence from Mrs. Carroll Dow of Newburyport; she was a Gowen. My husband is one of 10 children, 9 of whom are living; the oldest one is 75, and the youngest is 57. Some the Gowens are in Chicago, Indiana and Washington state, all descendants of William Gowen who settled here.”

Julie Tuttle, a relative of Angevine Wesley. Gowen, lived at Ida Grove, Iowa in 1991. Another relative, Bradley B. Moulton, lived at Cape Neddick, Maine at that time, accord­ing to Mar­garet Pearson Tate.

The great white oak was used as a boundary maker in deeds written in 1641. Title to it was conveyed in his will.

Clarence Eastman Gowen, [John Wesley6, John5, Nathan4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of John Wesley Gowen and Hannah Jane Gerry Gowen, was born about 1871. He was married about 1894 to Mai Ethel Pray, daughter of John C. Pray and Jennie Hall Pray. She was born in Dover, New Hampshire April 7, 1873. She died in Portsmouth, New Hamp­shire October 7, 1928, according to her tombstone. It is believe that Clarence Eastman Gowen was remarried, to Lottie Smart about 1930. Children born to Clarence Eastman Gowen and Lottie Smart Gowen are unknown.

Children born to Clarence Eastman Gowen and Mai Ethel Pray Gowen include:

  • Elizabeth Gowen born January 15, 1910

Elizabeth Gowen, [Clarence Eastman7, John Wesley6, John5, Nathan4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of Clarence Eastman Gowen, and Mai Ethel Pray Gowen, was born January 15, 1910. She was married about 1931, husband’s named Richardson. She was graduated from the University of Hampshire and received a master’s degree from Cornell Univer­sity.

In 1957 she removed to Ft. Lauderdale, Florida where she taught at Ft. Lauderdale Winter School and at Fern Hall, a pri­vate school. She died August 14, 1994 in Ft. Lauderdale and was buried in Oakland Park, according to her obituary pub­lished in the “Exeter Newsletter” of Exeter, New Hampshire in its August 19, 1994 edition.

Children born to her include:

  • Priscilla Richardson born about 1933
  • Nancy Richardson born about 1935
  • Carol Richardson born about 1938

Annie Jane Gowen, [John Wesley6, John5, Nathan4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of John Wesley Gowen and Hannah Jane Gerry Gowen February 10, 1874 on Cider Hill. She was reared by her aunt Julia M. Gowen when her par­ents died. She was married about 1891 to Edward E. Freeman who was born May 8, 1866. She died May 26, 1919, and he died August 18, 1936. They were buried in the family plot on Cider Hill.

Lydia J. Gowen, [John5, Nathan4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of John Gowen and Hannah Gowen, was born February 10, 1841. She died September 9, 1891 unmar­ried. She was buried in the Gowen Cemetery on Cider Hill.

Mary Elizabeth Gowen, [John5, Nathan4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of John Gowen and Hannah Witham Gowen, was born in York about 1845. She was mar­ried about 1866 to William Woodward.

Children born to William Woodward and Mary Elizabeth Gowen Woodward include:

  • Laura Gowen Woodward born in 1877

Laura Gowen Woodward, daughter of William Woodward and Mary Elizabeth Gowen Woodward, was born in 1877. She was married about 1897 to William B. Card.

Children born to William B. Card and Laura Gowen Woodward Card include:

  • Flora Card born about 1910

Flora Card, daughter of William B. Card and Laura Gowen Woodward Card, was born about 1910. She was married about 1930 to James Edward Woodford. In 1994, they lived in Cape Neddick, Maine where she, a member of Gowen Research Foundation, was active in the research of her Gowen family.

Julia M. Gowen, [John5, Nathan4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of John Gowen and Hannah Gowen, was born in Kittery March 12, 1851. She did not marry, but reared three orphan children of her brother John Wesley Gowen. She died October 19, 1930 and was buried in the Gowen Cemetery on Cider Hill.

Laura A. Gowen, [John5, Nathan4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of John Gowen and Hannah Gowen, was born in Kittery in December 1859. She died at “aged 15 years, 1 month,” according to her tombstone in Gowen Cemetery on Cider Hill.

Joseph Gowen, [Nathan5, Lemuel Jr.4, Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of John Gowen, was born in 1810. He died in 1886, according to his tombstone in the Gowen family plot on Cider Hill.

Joseph Gowen, [Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Lemuel Gowen and Judith Lord Gowen, was born about 1735, probably at Berwick. He was baptized September 28, 1738 in the First Church of Berwick. Of this individual nothing more is known.

Nathan Gowen, [Lemuel3, John2, William Alexander1] son of Lemuel Gowen and Judith Lord Gowen, was born about 1736, probably at Berwick. He was baptized September 28, 1738, ac­cording to records of the First Church of Berwick.

William Gowen, [John2, William Alexander1] son of John Gowen and Mercy Hammond Gowen, was born July 14, 1715, at Berwick. He was married about 1738 at Charlestown to Sarah Winkley, daughter of Sarah Winkley from Portsmouth, Maine, according to “Colonial families of the United States.” He was identified as a sea captain at Charlestown in 1746 by “Old Kittery and Her Families.” William Gowen “was warned” by church officials in Charlestown in 1759.

Children born to William Gowen and Sarah Wink­ley Gowen are believed to include:

  • William Gowen born June 18, 1739
  • Abigail Gowen born August 6, 1741
  • Joseph Gowen born July 1, 1744
  • Lemuel Gowen baptized in 1759

William Gowen, [William3, John2, William Alexander1] son of William Gowen and Sarah Winkley Gowen was born June 18, 1739, probably at Charlestown. Of this individual nothing more is known.

Abigail Gowen, [William3, John2, William Alexander1] daughter of William Gowen and Sarah Winkley Gowen, was born Au­gust 6, 1741, probably at Charlestown. Of this indi­vidual nothing more is known.

Joseph Gowen, [William3, John2, William Alexander1] son of William Gowen and Sarah Winkley Gowen was born July 1, 1744, probably at Charlestown. Of this individual nothing more is known.

Lemuel Gowen, [William3, John2, William Alexander1] son of William Gowen and Sarah Winkley Gowen, was baptized in 1759 at Charlestown. Of this indi­vidual nothing more is known.

William Gowen, [William Alexander1] son of William Alexan­der Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen, was born about 1672 at Kittery. Accord­ing to the research of Margaret Tate Pearson, William Gowen was killed by the Indians October 12, 1691.

……..
move to proper William Gowen section
Other data reveals he witnessed a deed December 16, 1706, according to York Deeds. He witnessed a deed of Daniel Emery June 20, 1707. This deed give a history of the Emery family. He wit­nessed a deed January 1, 1709. William Gowen “of Kittery” witnessed a deed December 15, 1709.

Elizabeth Gowen, [William Alexander1] daughter of William Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen, was born about 1673 at Kittery. She was married about 1695 to Alexander Ferguson. In 1697 the couple continued to live at Kittery. They were joined by Elizabeth Frost Gowen and Daniel Emery and Margaret Gowen Emery in the sale of property, probably an inheritance from William Gowen, there on February 6, 1696-97. The deed, recorded in York Deed Book 4, folio 97, read:

“To all Christian People to whome this present deed of Sale shall come greeting Know yee that wee Allexander fforgisson and Daniel Emery with ye Concent of our mother in Law Elizabeth Gowen and our wiues Elliza­beth fforgison and Margaret Emory, of ye town of Kit­tery in Yorke Shire in ye Province of ye Matta­chets bay in New England for and Consideration of the Sume of forty and three pounds money of New: England to them in hand paid att & before ye En­sealing and deliv­ery of these presents well and truely paid by Jabaz Jenkins of ye town of Kittery abouesd have given granted bar­gained Sold and by these pre­sents doe fully and abso­lutly give grant bargaine Sell release Enfeoffe and Con­firm unto ye sd Jabaz Jenk­ins for ye aboue sd Sume of money the which they hereby acknowledge to have Re­ceived two Sartaine parsels of Land bounded as fol­loweth viz one parsel being about Eleuen accres bounded on ye north with the land formerly Adrain fryers and Stirgion Creeke on ye west with maine River on ye South with John Morrels and on the East with John Morrell the other parsel being about forty nine accres bounded by Stir­gion Creek on ye South near bare Coue and on ye west and East with John Morrell and William Tom­sons Land, and on ye South as it may appeare on Rec­cord all ye aboue mentioned Sixty accres of Land butted and bounded as aboue or howeuer otherwise all ye Estate Right title Interest use propriety posses­sion Claime and demand whatsoeuer of them or Ei­ther of them of in and unto the sd land and Euery part or peace thereof, To have and To hold ye afore granted premises with ye liberties, priviliges Com­modityes benifits and appurtenances thereunto be­longing is in large and ample maner and Sou unto ye sd Jabaz Jenkins his heirs and Assigns for Euer to be unto ye only proper use benifit and behoofe of ye sd Jabez Jenkins his heirs and Assigns for Euer.

And ye sd Allexander fforgisson and Daniel Emery for them Selues their heirs and Assigns doe Couenant and promiss to and with ye sd Jabaz Jenkins his heirs and Assigns Shall and may at all times for Ever hereafter Lawfully peaceably and quietly have hold use occupie possesse and Injoy all ye sd peces of land with ye priv­ileges and apartenances thereof without ye lest let hin­derence or Claiming any Right or Euiction by or from them or Either of them or by or from all and Euery other person or persons having or Claiming any Right title or Interest therein by from or under ye sd Allexander ffor­gisson and Daniel Emory In Witness whareof they have hereunto Set their hands and Seales ye Sixth day of febry in ye year of our Lord one thou­sand Six hundred Ninty Six Seven and in ye Eighth year of ye Raine of our Soueren Lord William ye third, King of England & etc.”

Signed Sealed And Daniel Emory (his seal)
Delivered In Allexander fforgisson (his seal)
Presents of us. Ellizabeth Gowen allias Smith
(her seal)
John Belcher Ellizabeth ffergisson (her seal)
Charles ffrost Junr Margrit Emery (her seal)

This Instrument was acknowledged by the fiue persons Subscribing to be their voluntary act and Deed.

Kittery ffebry ye 6 1696-97 before me Charles ffrost
Justice of Peace”

In 1707, they lived in Eliot, Maine where a daughter, Sarah Ferguson was born. In 1719, they lived in Kittery, Maine where a daughter, Jane Ferguson was married.

Children born to Alexander Ferguson and Elizabeth Gowen Ferguson include:

  • Jane Ferguson born about 1700
  • Sarah Ferguson born May 17, 1707

Jane Ferguson, daughter of Alexander Ferguson and Elizabeth Gowen Ferguson was born about 1700. She was married January 31, 1719-20 to her first cousin, John Gowen, her mother’s nephew. John Gowen was a mariner and rarely ever was home. Jane Ferguson Gowen had to move in with her parents to survive. Her father filed suit against John Gowen in 1728 “for boarding her daughter, Jane Gowen for four and one-half years.”

Elizabeth Ferguson Gowen died in 1731, and John Gowen died in 1732.

Children born to them include:

  • Jane Gowen born September 23, 1721

Sarah Ferguson, daughter of Alexander Ferguson and Elizabeth Gowen Ferguson, was born May 17, 1707 in Eliot. She was married November 21, 1733 to Thomas Staples who was born January 9, 1711. He died before 1745 at Kittery, “leaving three children,” according to his father’s will. Names of the Staples children is unknown.

James Gowen, [William Alexander1] son of William Alexander Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen, was born March 29, 1675 at Kittery, according to “History of York County, Maine.” He was married 1697, wife’s name Mary.

On March 14, 1700 James Gowen “alias Smith, received £3:6:8” from John Gowen “as his part of the estate of William Gowen as approved by the probate January 19, 1696-97,” according to “York Deeds.”

He appeared on a York County jury list July 7, 1702 and Oc­tober 6, 1702, according to “Province and Court Records of Maine.”

On December 14, 1702 “James Gowen of Wells, blacksmith,” and his wife, Mary Gowen, sold 10 acres of land, for 10 pounds, which he had inherited from his father to his brother Lemuel Gowen “shopkeeper of Kittery,” according to “York Court Records,” Book 7, Folio 19.

Legal description of the land which had been granted to William Alexander Gowen by the town of Kittery April 13, 1671 read, “beginning on ye East Side of the Stony brook which runs out of York pond a little to ye South of York high­way and runs from said brook two hundred rods East in Length and eighty-six rods in breadth North and South, con­taining 100 acres of land.” Mary Gowen made her mark in signing the deed. Joseph Hammond, Jr, Elizabeth Brock and Titus Joans were witnesses to the deed.

Margaret Gowen, [William Alexander1] daughter of William Alexander Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen was born November 15, 1678 at Kittery. On March 17, 1695 she was married to Daniel Emery who was born September 13, 1667 at Kittery. On February 6. 1696-97 they joined her mother and sister, Elizabeth Gowen Ferguson and her husband in the sale of property, probably and inheri­tance from William Alexander Gowen at Kittery.

Daniel Emery was the son of James Emery and Elizabeth Emery. James Emery was born about 1660 in Romsey, Hamp­shire to Anthony Emery and Frances Emery, and emi­grated to the colonies with his parents in the ship “James” landing in Boston June 3, 1635. Anthony Emery second son of John Emery and Agnes Emery, was born at Romsey, Hampshire about 1630. He arrived in Boston in 1635, settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, removed to Dover, New Hamp­shire in 1640. In 1649 he removed to Kittery, where he served as a selectman, ju­ror and constable. In 1660 he was fined for entertaining Quak­ers and disfranchised. At that time he removed to Rhode Island where more religious freedom prevailed.

Daniel Emery was a land surveyor and in 1718 was named to a commission to mark the boundary between Berwick and Kit­tery, Maine.

He was deacon and later an elder in the Congregational Church. He was a selectman in 1704, 1712, and 1718. He was the church moderator in 1707 and 1718. He died Octo­ber 15, 1722. Margaret Gowen Emery died November 21, 1751. Her estate was appraised December 21, 1751 in York, County. James Gowen, nephew was one of the appraisers.

Caleb Emery, son of Caleb Emery and a grandson of Daniel Emery was married in 1764 to Elizabeth Gowen, daughter of James Gowen

A descendant of Daniel Emery and Margaret Gowen Emery is Harriett Godfrey Emery who was born in Bay City, Michi­gan.

Children born to Daniel Emery and Margaret Gowen Emery in­clude:

  • Daniel Emery born June 25, 1697
  • Noah Emery born December 11, 1699
  • Simon Emery born January 6, 1702
  • Zachariah Emery born March 12, 1704-05
  • Margaret Emery born March 3, 1707
  • Caleb Emery born October 17, 1710
  • Ann Emery born March 19, 1712-13
  • Joshua Emery born June 30, 1715
  • Tizrah Emery born September 19, 1717
  • Huldah Emery born August 4, 1720

Caleb Emery Gowen, believed to be a descendant of Caleb Emery who was born in York County, Maine October 17, 1710, was enrolled in Harvard University from 1874 to 1878, receiving his A. B. Degree in 1878. In 1910 he was a resident of Cleveland, Ohio, living on Magnolia Drive. He was engaged in “manufacturing and transportation” according to the alumni directory.

In the same edition Albert Younglove Gowen, believed to be a son of Caleb Emery Gowen, was listed as a student at Harvard University from 1903 through 1905. In 1910 he was listed in “manufacturing” and with address as 11120 Magnolia Drive, Cleveland. Albert Younglove Gowen was recorded in the “Guiness Book of Records” as the first to sail around the world in a motor-driven yacht in 1922.

In 1993 a son, Albert Younglove “Jaxie” Gowen, Jr. lived in Geneva, Switzerland. He was executive vice-president of Coutts & Company, the investment banking arm of National Westminster Bank Group, a British firm.

In 1999. Albert Younglove “Jaxie” Gowen, Jr, vice chairman of Sarasin Geneva, part of Bank Sarasin, a Swiss private bank. He was interviewed by a reporter of the “International Herald-Tribune” of Paris, France who was writing a news story on “money laundering” which was published October 18, 1999.

Lemuel Gowen, [William Alexander1] son of William Alexander Gowen and Eliza­beth Frost Gowen, was born February 9, 1680 at Kittery.

He witnessed a deed for 20 acres of land January 13, 1702-03 at Kittery purchased fromThomas Butler by his brother, Nicholas Gowen, [check original] according to “York County Records.”

On November 14, 1702 Lemuel Gowen “of Berwick” wrote a receipt to his brother, John Gowen, according to “York Deeds,” Volume 6, page 38:

“Received of my brother, John Gowen, the sum of 3 pounds, 6 shilling & eight pence, being in full of that part of my father, William Gowen’s Estate which he, ye said John Gowen, was appointed to pay me before ye decease of my mother, Elizabeth Gowen.
Lemuel Gowen”

On July 6, 1703 Lemuel Gowen appeared in Infe­rior Court of Common Pleas on behalf of his mother, ac­cording to York Court Records as abstracted in “Province & Court Records of Maine.” The court verdict was recorded as:

“Lemuel Gowen, assignee & attornye to Elizabeth Gowen, relict widow & administratrix to the estate of William Gowen, Late of Kittery, Yeoman, deceased, is plaintiff against William Goodwin, Executor to the Last Will and Testament of John Taylor & defendant in an action of the case for withholding and not paying unto the plaintiff the sum of three pounds money due from the estate of one James Berry decd. unto the Es­tate of Wm. Gowen decd as per attachment. The jury Finds for the Plaintiff the debt sued for and cost of Court allowed 3 pounds, 1s 4d.”

Lemuel Gowen purchased for 10 pounds, 100 acres of land at Kittery from James Gowen, his brother, December 14, 1702, according to “York Court Records,” Book 7, Folio 19. The land had been inherited from their father. James Gowen was identified as “James Gowen, blacksmith of Wells.”

Lemuel Gowen received a donation of “one shilling” from tax money in 1704 while living at Kittery. He was also men­tioned in “Manuscript of New England” by Vassall.

“Lemuel Gowen” was married January 5, 1709 to Sarah Wadsworth by Rev. Benjamin Wadsworth, ac­cording to “Boston Marriages” by Edward W. McGlenen. Of Sarah Wadsworth Gowen nothing more is known.

Lemuel Gowen must have remarried later because in his will he mentioned “my beloved wife, Judith.”

Lemuel Gowen wrote his will December 27, 1737 and it is recorded in York County Will Book 5, page 195, ac­cording to “Maine Wills, 1640-1760” by William M. Sargent:

“In the Name of God Amen the twenty seventh Day of December in ye Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and thirty seven, I, Lemuel Gowen of Kittery in the County of York within his Majesty’s Province of ye Massachusetts Bay in New England Yeoman being bound on a Voyage to Sea and not Knowing wheather it will please God to preserve my life and return me in safety to my Native Country. I do make and Ordain this my last Will and Testatment.

“Imprimis I do Resign and submit both Body & Soul to God in hope his favour & Grace in Christ and as to such Worldly Estate as it has been pleased God to give me in this Life and bequeath in manner & from form follow­ing.

“That is to say I give & bequeath unto my well beloved Wife Judith all my Real & Personal Estate to her Dis­posall for ye benefit of my Children & I likewise ap­point my said Wife Judith my whole & sole Executrix of this my last Will & Testament Disannualling all former Wills by me heretofore made.

“In Witness whereunto I have Set my hand & Seal ye date written above.
Lemuel Gowen [seal)

“Signed, Sealed, Pronounced & Declared by ye said Lemuel Gowen as his last Will & Testatment in the pre­sense of

John Watkins, James Fferguson, Thomas Emery.”

Apparently the fears of Lemuel Gowen were real­ized, and it is believed that he perished at sea because his will was probated October 17, 1740. Of Lemuel Gowen, Sarah Wadsworth Gowen and Judith Gowen and their children nothing more is known.

Sarah Gowen, [William Alexander1] daughter of William Alexander Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen, was born March 30, 1684 at Kittery. She was married in 1698 to William Smith of Berwick, according to Kittery marriage records. Sarah Gowen Smith wrote a receipt to her brother March 16, 1700 acknowledging payment from the estate of her father:

“Sarah Gowen received of John Gowen [alias Smith] 35 shillings in part of what he was to pay me when I shall arrive at age 18 years, it being part of my portion, as ap­pears on Record by the distribution of my father’s estate, bearing date January 19, 1696-97.

Sarah [X] Smith
Witnesses: wife of William Smith
Elizabeth [X] Gowen
Mary Hammond”

On November 19, 1702 William Smith, a resident of Berwick, wrote the following receipt to John Gowen:

“Received of my brother, John Gowen, 4 pounds, 18 shillings, 4 pence, which makes in full of 6 pounds, 13 shillings 4 pence that ye said John Gowen was ap­pointed to pay my wife, Sarah Gowen, for her part of our father, William Gowen’s estate before decease of our mother Elizabeth Gowen.

Witnesses William Smith
Daniel Emery
Lemuel Gowen”

William Gowen, Scot
Deported by Cromwell

William Gowen, a Scotch soldier captured by the troops of Oliver Cromwell in the Battle of Dunbar September 3, 1650, is believed to be the first member of the Gowen family in New England. He was born in 1634, according to a deposition signed by him in 1685. His full name appeared to be William
Alexander Gowen from tax records of Oyster River, Massachusetts.

He was reported to be among 10,000 Scots captured by Cromwell in the battle fought on the east coast of Scotland. The one-sided battle which lasted only two hours was fought between 11,000 English Parliament supporters and 26,000 Scotch Royalists led by David Leslie, later Lord Newark.

Dunbar is a seaport on the southern entrance to the Firth of Forth, 36 miles northeast of Edinburgh. In the battle 3,000 Scots were killed and 10,000 taken prisoner. The English put their casualties at only 20 men killed.

The prisoners taken at Dunbar were marched by the English down to Durham and Newcastle in Northumberland. Many perished on this march, and some were shot because they could not or would not march, according to “History of Dover, New Hampshire.” During the march, which took eight days, the prisoners were given little to eat. Disease swept off 1,500 in the course of a few weeks. The flux was
responsible for the death of 500. The English reported that the Scots killed each other for money or clothing. In Northumberland the prisoners were put under the care of Sir Arthur Heselrig who wrote October 31, 1650 that “1,600 died altogether in 58 days.”

On September 19, 1650, Cromwell’s council ordered Heselrig to deliver to Samuel Clark 900 of the Scots for transportation to Virginia, and 150 more “well and sound, and free from wounds” were selected for transportation to New England.

Those bound for New England were placed under the charge of Joshua Foote and John Becx of London who “were interested as managers of the ironworks at Lynn, Massachusetts.” They sailed on the “Unity” November 11, 1650.

Upon arrival at Boston, some were sent to Berwick, Maine. There they settled in Unity Parish [named after their ship] and began work in a sawmill. When released in 1656, they settled in Berwick.

Col. Charles Edward Banks wrote an article, “Scotch Prisoners Deported to New England by Cromwell, 1651-52” on the fate of the deported Scots which was published in “Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings,” Volume 61 [1928].

The Rev. John Cotton wrote a letter reporting on the condition of the prisoners “to the Lord General Cromwell, dated at Boston in N. E, 28th of 5th, 1651:”

“The Scots, who God delivered into your hands at Dunbarre, and whereof sundry were sent hither we have been desirous [as we could] to make their yoke easy.

Such as were sick of the scurvy or other diseases have not wanted physick and chyrurgery. They have not been sold for slaves to perpetual servitude, but for 6 or 7 or 8 years, as we do our owne; and he that bought the most of them buildeth houses for them, for every four an house, layeth some acres of ground thereto, which he giveth them as their owne, requiring 3 dayes in the week to worke for him [by turnes] and 4 dayes for themselves, and promiseth, as soone as they can repay him the money he layed out for them, he will set them at liberty.”

“William Gowen, alias Smith,” Philip Chesley and Thomas Footman were convicted of quarreling with James Middleton at Oyster River in 1658, according to “History of Durham, New Hampshire.” This volume reports that “William Gowen, alias Smith,” was taxed at Oyster River in 1659.

“William Smith, alias Gowin,” was fined “for fighting and bloodshed on ye Lords day after ye afternoone meeting,” June 30, 1668. “Elaxander Gowing,” who “History of Durham, New Hampshire” reported as the same man, was taxed at Oyster River in 1661.

William Gowen was married May 14, 1667 in Kittery, Maine to Elizabeth Frost, daughter of Nicholas Frost and Mary Bollen Frost, according to “John Salter, Mariner,” a volume, written by W. T. Salter published in 1900.

Nicholas Frost was born in 1592 in England, at Tiverton. At age 21, “Nicholas Frost of Biddeford, merchant, had license from the Bishop of Exeter April 1, 1613 to marry Mary Bollen of Monckleigh, gentlewoman,” according to “Pioneers of Maine and New Hampshire.” Nicholas Frost and Mary
Bollen Frost “of Devonshire” emigrated to Massachusetts Bay Colony, sailing from Bristol, according to “Maine Historical & Genealogical Records.”

Nicholas Frost was recorded as “trading” at Damerill’s Cove in 1632, and he was fined and punished by the General Court of Massachusetts Bay “upon the complaint of Dorchester traders.” He was prosecuted again in 1636, according to “Massachusetts Collections of Records.” He was “fined, whipped, branded on the hand and banished for stealing from the Indians and other crimes,” according to “New England
Frontier.” One of his associates, John Dawe, was led to the whipping post for “intiseing an Indian woman to lye with him.”

Following his banishment from Massachusetts he had the distinction of being the first settler of Eliot, Maine in 1636. At Kittery he signed a petition addressed to the governor July 27, 1639 seeking a pardon from his conviction. His signature was “Nicholas Frost, of Pascattaquay, mason.”

In 1648 he was appointed a selectman. On November 16, 1652 he took the oath of allegiance to the Massachusetts government. In 1658 he was appointed on a committee to “Pitch and lay out the dividing line between Yorke and Wells townships,” according to “Massachusetts Collection of Records.”

In Kittery William Gowen frequently signed his name as “William Smith.” His use of the alias suggests that he might still have some dread of the English authorities. His sons also used the alias from time to time. It was a natural application since the name “Gowen” in Gaelic means “Smith.”

William Gowen received a land grant at Kittery in 1666 and a grant of a house lot in 1670. On April 13, 1672 “William Gowine, alias Smyth” received a deed from Abraham Tilton “of growing timber of Abraham Conly’s land at Spruce Creek, Kittery,” according to York Deed Book 3, folio 64. He
received another grant there in 1674.

William Gowen was a freeholder in Kittery in 1675. On September 16, 1676 “William Gowine, alias Smith bought all right to lands on the Kennebec River from James Middleton,” according to York Deed Book 3, folio 67. “William Gowine, alias Smith” was appointed administrator of the estate of Tristram
Harris, deceased,” October 15, 1677, according to York records. Harris, his comrade-at-arms was killed in a battle with the Indians.

“William Gowen, alias Smyth” was appointed to a committee to settle a boundary dispute April 12, 1680, according to York Deed Book 4, folio 36. “William Gowine, alias Smyth” received a partition deed April 13, 1680 from Charles Frost, John F. Frost and Joseph Hammond, his brothers-in-law, to
real estate in Kittery inherited from Nicholas Frost, Jr. according to York Deed Book 3, folio 67.

William Gowen and James Emery were appointed appraisers of the estate of Jonathan Fletcher June 12, 1685, according to York Court Book I, folio 37. In the “fourth month, 1685, Elizabeth Gowen, alias Smith,” and Nicholas Frost posted bond to become the executors of the estate of “Capt. Frost”
according to “Maine Historical & Genealogical Records.”

William Gowen made his living as a farmer and a carpenter and apparently spent his entire life in the new world at Kittery. He died there April 2, 1686 at age 52. His estate was valued May 21, 1686 by John Wincoll and Nicholas Frost at “265 pounds, 9 shillings” as recorded in “York Court Records,
Part I, folio 40. Included were 258 acres of land, five oxen, 10 cows, two horses, and “in the fyre roume foure gunnes and a backe sword.”

The court recorded: “Elizabeth Smith alias Gowen doth Attest vpon her oath that his Inventory aboue written of William Smiths alias Gowein deceased is a true inventory to ye best of her knowledge & yt more do appeare afterwards vpon oath in Court this 21th of May 1686.”

On July 2 1695 Elizabeth Frost Gowen was sued by Phillip White “For detaining and withholding one half of all ye estate, both reall & personall, belonging to Tristram Harris, deceased.” She lost the case and appealed to the next superior court, where the decision was reversed in Boston, Massachusetts
in October 1695.

Elizabeth Frost Gowen on March 16, 1700 witnessed a receipt signed by her daughter Sarah Gowen Smith for a distribution of her inheritance, according to “York Court Records.”

Elizabeth Frost Gowen received in 1704 a donation of “1s. 9d” from public funds. She was mentioned as living in the home of her son, Nicholas Gowen when he wrote his will in 1733.

She died shortly afterward at about age 92.

In 15 generations, thousands of descendants of William Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen have been recorded since their marriage 333 years ago. Family historians spanning several generations have collaborated to research their fascinating story.

Angevine W. Gowen, a civil engineer, surveyor and historian, who contributed much data to “History of York, Maine” written by Col. Charles Edward Banks, was a descendant. He was born in 1869 at York and became one of the family’s earliest genealogists. According to John D. Bardwell, York historian, he was “an orphan who was reared by Miss Julia M. Gowen, his mother’s sister [sister-in-law?] and an uncle, Joseph Gowen” who instilled in him their curiosity about their ancestors.

Angevine W. Gowen was born on the home lot of his maternal ancestor, Thomas Moulton in the house built in 1714 on the York River by Joseph Moulton, son of Jeremiah Moulton and grandson of Thomas Moulton, according to Bardwell.

Jeremiah Moulton purchased the property from Sir Ferdinando Gorges in 1684 for £20.

The site was surveyed for Sir Ferdinando Gorges, “the Lord Proprietor of the Province of Mayne” November 11, 1641. It was described as “a division of 12,000 acres of land amongst the Patentee of Agamentics, made by us Thomas Gorges, Esq, Edward Godfrey and Roger Garde who are acting on behalf of Mr. Sayward’s Patentees.”

Angevine W. Gowen learned the surveying trade from Samuel W. Junkins, beginning as a chain carrier for him. In 1890, he went out on his own as a surveyor. He also received recognition as a photographer, violin maker, musician, game warden, farmer, fisherman, astronomer, taxidermist and woodsman, according to Bardwell. Many of his photographs of the York area made on glass negatives survive. The Gowen home and 20 acres of land was later acquired by Old York Historical Society.

A niece of Angevine W. Gowen, Mrs. Leslie Freeman of York, continued the work, building on his research. Helen P. Gowen continued research on the family into the 1950s when blindness interrupted her work at the age of 84. She passed the torch to her younger cousin Viola Allen Gowen of Sanford,
Maine. Julie Tuttle, a relative of Angevine W. Gowen, lived at Ida Grove, Iowa in 1991. Another relative, Bradley Moulton, lived at Cape Neddick, Maine at that time, according to Margaret Pearson Tate of Exeter, New Hampshire.

Viola Allen Gowen suggested in her correspondence that it was likely that William Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen were the ancestors of some of the southern Gowens in colonial Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

The most comprehensive work on this branch of the family has been published by Yvonne Gowen of Surrey, British Columbia, a member of Gowen Research Foundation. Over 10 years were spent in gathering data on the family. Mrs. Gowen, an accomplished genealogist, assembled data from
many sources. Among researchers who assisted were Margaret Pearson Tate of Exeter, NH; Almeda Gowen Schofield of Contoocook, NH; Barbara Clements of North Hampton, NH; Mary Driscoll of Springvale, ME and Mary Ellen Gowen Waugh of Riverdale, MD, also Foundation members.

Children born to William Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen include:

Nicholas Gowen born in 1667
John Gowen born in 1668
William Gowen born about 1672
Elizabeth Gowen born about 1673
James Gowen born about 1675
Margaret Gowen born about 1677
Lemuel Gowen born about 1680
Sarah Gowen born about 1682

Photo:
James Gowen, postmaster and grocer of Highland Lake, Maine, owned this general store in 1914 when
the above photograph was taken. James Gowen was a descendant of William Gowen, Scotch prisoner-of-war who arrived there in 1651. James Gowen was also the grandfather of Henry James Gowen of Westbrook, Maine who provided this photograph during a visit to the Foundation office in March.

William Gowen, Scot, Deported
[Continued from April Newsletter]

William Gowen was a freeholder in Kittery in 1675. On
September 16, 1676 “William Gowine, alias Smith bought all
right to lands on the Kennebec River from James Middleton,”
according to York Deed Book 3, folio 67. “William Gowine,
alias Smith” was appointed administrator of the estate of
Tristram Harris, deceased,” October 15, 1677, according to
York records. Harris, his comrade-at-arms was killed in a
battle with the Indians.

“William Gowen, alias Smyth” was appointed to a committee
to settle a boundary dispute April 12, 1680, according to York
Deed Book 4, folio 36. “William Gowine, alias Smyth” received
a partition deed April 13, 1680 from Charles Frost,
John F. Frost and Joseph Hammond, his brothers-in-law, to
real estate in Kittery inherited from Nicholas Frost, Jr.
according to York Deed Book 3, folio 67.

William Gowen and James Emery were appointed appraisers
of the estate of Jonathan Fletcher June 12, 1685, according to
York Court Book I, folio 37.

In the “fourth month, 1685, Elizabeth Gowen, alias Smith,”
and Nicholas Frost posted bond to become the executors of the
estate of “Capt. Frost” according to “Maine Historical &
Genealogical Records.”

William Gowen made his living as a farmer and a carpenter
and apparently spent his entire life in the new world at Kittery.
He died there April 2, 1686 at age 52.

His estate was valued May 21, 1686 by John Wincoll and
Nicholas Frost at “265 pounds, 9 shillings” as recorded in
“York Court Records, Part I, folio 40. Included were 258
acres of land, five oxen, 10 cows, two horses, and “in the fyre
roume foure gunnes and a backe sword.”

The court recorded: “Elizabeth Smith alias Gowen doth Attest
upon her oath that his Inventory aboue written of William
Smiths alias Gowein deceased is a true inventory to ye best of
her knowledge & yt more do appeare afterwards upon oath in
Court this 21th of May 1686.”

On July 2 1695 Elizabeth Frost Gowen was sued by Phillip
White “For detaining and withholding one half of all ye estate,
both reall & personall, belonging to Tristram Harris,
deceased.” She lost the case and appealed to the next superior
court, where the decision was reversed in Boston, Massachusetts
in October 1695.

Elizabeth Frost Gowen on March 16, 1700 witnessed a receipt
signed by her daughter Sarah Gowen Smith for a distribution
of her inheritance, according to “York Court Records.”

Elizabeth Frost Gowen received in 1704 a donation of “1s. 9d”
from public funds. She was mentioned as living in the home
of her son, Nicholas Gowen when he wrote his will in 1733.

She died shortly afterward at about age 92.

==O==

In 15 generations, thousands of descendants of William
Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen have been recorded since
their marriage 333 years ago. Family historians spanning
several generations have collaborated to research their
fascinating story.

Angevine W. Gowen, a civil engineer, surveyor and historian,
who contributed much data to “History of York, Maine”
written by Col. Charles Edward Banks, was a descendant. He
was born in 1869 at York of parents unknown and became one
of the family’s earliest genealogists. According to John D.
Bardwell, York historian, he was “an orphan who was reared
by Miss Julia M. Gowen, his mother’s sister [sister-in-law?]
and an uncle, Joseph Gowen” who instilled in him their
curiosity about their ancestors.

Angevine W. Gowen was born on the home lot of his maternal
ancestor, Thomas Moulton in the house built in 1714 on the
York River by Joseph Moulton, son of Jeremiah Moulton and
grandson of Thomas Moulton, according to Bardwell.

Jeremiah Moulton purchased the property from Sir Ferdinando
Gorges in 1684 for 20 pounds.

The site was surveyed for Sir Ferdinando Gorges, “the Lord
Proprietor of the Province of Mayne” November 11, 1641. It
was described as “a division of 12,000 acres of land amongst
the Patentee of Agamentics, made by us Thomas Gorges, Esq,
Edward Godfrey and Roger Garde who are acting on behalf of
Mr. Sayward’s Patentees.”

Angevine W. Gowen learned the surveying trade from Samuel
W. Junkins, beginning as a chain carrier for him. In 1890, he
went out on his own as a surveyor. He also received
recognition as a photographer, violin maker, musician, game
warden, farmer, fisherman, astronomer, taxidermist and
woodsman, according to Bardwell. Many of his photographs
of the York area made on glass negatives survive. The Gowen
home and 20 acres of land was later acquired by Old York
Historical Society.

A niece of Angevine W. Gowen, Mrs. Leslie Freeman of
York, continued the work, building on his research. Helen
Parker Gowen continued research on the family into the 1950s
when blindness interrupted her work at the age of 84. She
passed the torch to her younger cousin Viola Allen Gowen of
Sanford, Maine. Julie Tuttle, a relative of Angevine W.
Gowen, lived at Ida Grove, Iowa in 1991. Another relative,
Bradley Moulton, lived at Cape Neddick, Maine at that time,
according to Margaret Pearson Tate of Exeter, New
Hampshire.

Viola Allen Gowen suggested in her correspondence that it
was likely that William Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen
were the ancestors of some of the southern Gowens in colonial
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

The most comprehensive work on this branch of the family
has been published by Yvonne Gowen of Surrey, British
Columbia, a member of Gowen Research Foundation. Over
10 years were spent in gathering data on the family. Mrs.
Gowen, an accomplished genealogist, assembled data from
many sources. Among researchers who assisted were
Margaret Pearson Tate of Exeter, NH; Almeda Gowen
Schofield of Contoocook, NH; Barbara Clements of North
Hampton, NH; Mary Driscoll of Springvale, ME and Mary
Ellen Gowen Waugh of Riverdale, MD, also Foundation
members.

Children born to William Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen
include:

Nicholas Gowen born in 1667
John Gowen born in 1668
William Gowen born about 1672
Elizabeth Gowen born about 1673
James Gowen born about 1675
Margaret Gowen born about 1677
Lemuel Gowen born about 1680
Sarah Gowen born about 1682

From GRF Newsletter Apr 2000:

WILLIAM GOWEN, SCOTTICH HIGHLANDER DEPORTED BY OLIVER CROMWELL TO NEW ENGLAND IN 1650

William Gowen, a Scotch soldier captured by the
troops of Oliver Cromwell in the Battle of Dunbar
September 3, 1650, is believed to be the first mem-
ber of the Gowen family in New England. He was born
in 1634, according to a deposition signed by him in
1685. His full name appeared to be William Alexan-
der Gowen from tax records of Oyster River, Massa-
chusetts.

He was reported to be among 10,000 Scots captured
by Cromwell in the battle fought on the east coast
of Scotland. The one-sided battle which lasted only
two hours was fought between 11,000 English Parlia-
ment supporters and 26,000 Scotch Royalists led by
David Leslie, later Lord Newark. Dunbar is a sea-
port on the southern entrance to the Firth of Forth,
36 miles northeast of Edinburgh.

In the battle 3,000 Scots were killed and 10,000
taken prisoner. The English put their casualties at
only 20 men killed. The prisoners taken at Dunbar
were marched by the English down to Durham and New-
castle in Northumberland. Many perished on this
march, and some were shot because they could not or
would not march, according to “History of Dover, New
Hampshire.” During the march, which took eight
days, the prisoners were given little to eat.

Disease swept off 1,500 in the course of a few weeks.
The flux was responsible for the death of 500. The
English reported that the Scots killed each other for
money or clothing. In Northumberland the prisoners
were put under the care of Sir Arthur Heselrig who
wrote October 31, 1650 that “1,600 died altogether
in 58 days.”

On September 19, 1650, Cromwell’s council ordered Hes-
elrig to deliver to Samuel Clark 900 of the Scots for
transportation to Virginia, and 150 more “well and
sound, and free from wounds” were selected for trans-
portation to New England. Those bound for New Eng-
land were placed under the charge of Joshua Foote
and John Becx of London who “were interested as man-
agers of the ironworks at Lynn, Massachusetts.”

They sailed on the “Unity” November 11, 1650. Upon
arrival at Boston, some were sent to Berwick, Maine.
There they settled in Unity Parish [named after
their ship] and began work in a sawmill. When re-
leased in 1656, they settled in Berwick.

Col. Charles Edward Banks wrote an article, “Scotch
Prisoners Deported to New England by Cromwell,
1651-52” on the fate of the deported Scots which
was published in “Massachusetts Historical Society
Proceedings,” Volume 61 [1928].

The Rev. John Cotton wrote a letter reporting on the
condition of the prisoners “to the Lord General
Cromwell, dated at Boston in N. E, 28th of 5th, 1651:

“The Scots, who God delivered into your hands at
Dunbarre, and whereof sundry were sent hither we
have been desirous [as we could] to make their yoke
easy.

Such as were sick of the scurvy or other diseases
have not wanted physick and chyrurgery. They have
not been sold for slaves to perpetual servitude,
but for 6 or 7 or 8 years, as we do our owne; and
he that bought the most of them buildeth houses for
them, for every four an house, layeth some acres of
ground thereto, which he giveth them as their owne,
requiring 3 dayes in the week to worke for him [by
turnes] and 4 dayes for themselves, and promiseth,
as soone as they can repay him the money he layed
out for them, he will set them at liberty.”

“William Gowen, alias Smith,” Philip Chesley and
Thomas Footman were convicted of quarreling with
James Middleton at Oyster River in 1658, according
to “History of Durham, New Hampshire.” This volume
reports that “William Gowen, alias Smith,” was
taxed at Oyster River in 1659.

“William Smith, alias Gowin,” was fined “for fight-
ing and bloodshed on ye Lords day after ye after-
noone meeting,” June 30, 1668. “Elaxander Gowing,”
who “History of Durham, New Hampshire” reported as
the same man, was taxed at Oyster River in 1661.

William Gowen was married May 14, 1667 in Kittery,
Maine to Elizabeth Frost, daughter of Nicholas
Frost and Mary Bollen Frost, according to “John
Salter, Mariner,” a volume, written by W. T. Salt-
er published in 1900.

Nicholas Frost was born in 1592 in England, at
Tiverton. At age 21, “Nicholas Frost of Biddeford,
merchant, had license from the Bishop of Exeter
April 1, 1613 to marry Mary Bollen of Monckleigh,
gentlewoman,” according to “Pioneers of Maine and
New Hampshire.” Nicholas Frost and Mary Bollen
Frost “of Devonshire” emigrated to Massachusetts Bay
Colony, sailing from Bristol, according to “Maine
Historical & Genealogical Records.”

Nicholas Frost was recorded as “trading” at Dam-
erill’s Cove in 1632, and he was fined and punished
by the General Court of Massachusetts Bay “upon the
complaint of Dorchester traders.” He was prosecu-
ted again in 1636, according to “Massachusetts Col-
lections of Records.” He was “fined, whipped,
branded on the hand and banished for stealing from
the Indians and other crimes,” according to “New
England Frontier.”

One of his associates, John Dawe, was led to the
whipping post for “intiseing an Indian woman to
lye with him.”

Following his banishment from Massachusetts Frost
had the distinction of being the first settler of
Eliot, Maine in 1636. At Kittery he signed a peti-
tion addressed to the governor July 27, 1639 seek-
ing a pardon from his conviction. His signature
was “Nicholas Frost, of Pascattaquay, mason.”

In 1648 he was appointed a selectman. On November
16, 1652 he took the oath of allegiance to the Mas-
sachusetts government. In 1658 he was appointed on
a committee to “Pitch and lay out the dividing line
between Yorke and Wells townships,” according to
“Massachusetts Collection of Records.”

In Kittery William Gowen frequently signed his name
as “William Smith.” His use of the alias suggests
that he might still have some dread of the English
authorities. His sons also used the alias from
time to time. It was a natural application since
the name “Gowen” in Gaelic means “Smith.”

William Gowen received a land grant at Kittery in
1666 and a grant of a house lot in 1670. On April
13, 1672 “William Gowine, alias Smyth” received a
deed from Abraham Tilton “of growing timber of
Abraham Conly’s land at Spruce Creek, Kittery,” ac-
cording to York Deed Book 3, folio 64. He received
another grant there in 1674.

William Gowen was a freeholder in Kittery in 1675.
On September 16, 1676 “William Gowine, alias Smith
bought all right to lands on the Kennebec River
from James Middleton,” according to York Deed Book
3, folio 67. “William Gowine, alias Smith” was ap-
pointed administrator of the estate of Tristram Har-
ris, deceased,” October 15, 1677, according to York
records. Harris, his comrade-at-arms was killed in
a battle with the Indians.

“William Gowen, alias Smyth” was appointed to a com-
mittee to settle a boundary dispute April 12, 1680,
according to York Deed Book 4, folio 36. “William
Gowine, alias Smyth” received a partition deed April
13, 1680 from Charles Frost, John F. Frost and Jo-
seph Hammond, his brothers-in-law, to real estate in
Kittery inherited from Nicholas Frost, Jr. according
to York Deed Book 3, folio 67.

William Gowen and James Emery were appointed ap-
praisers of the estate of Jonathan Fletcher June 12,
1685, according to York Court Book I, folio 37. In
the “fourth month, 1685, Elizabeth Gowen, alias
Smith,” and Nicholas Frost posted bond to become the
executors of the estate of “Capt. Frost” according
to “Maine Historical & Genealogical Records.”

William Gowen made his living as a farmer and a car-
penter and apparently spent his entire life in the
new world at Kittery. He died there April 2, 1686
at age 52. His estate was valued May 21, 1686 by
John Wincoll and Nicholas Frost at “265 pounds, 9
shillings” as recorded in “York Court Records, Part
I, folio 40.

Included were 258 acres of land, five oxen, 10 cows,
two horses, and “in the fyre roume foure gunnes and
a backe sword.”

The court recorded: “Elizabeth Smith alias Gowen
doth Attest vpon her oath that his Inventory aboue
written of William Smiths alias Gowein deceased is
a true inventory to ye best of her knowledge & yt
more do appeare afterwards vpon oath in Court this
21th of May 1686.”

On July 2 1695 Elizabeth Frost Gowen was sued by
Phillip White “For detaining and withholding one
half of all ye estate, both reall & personall, be-
longing to Tristram Harris, deceased.” She lost
the case and appealed to the next superior court,
where the decision was reversed in Boston, Massa-
chusetts in October 1695.

Elizabeth Frost Gowen on March 16, 1700 witnessed
a receipt signed by her daughter Sarah Gowen Smith
for a distribution of her inheritance, according
to “York Court Records.” Elizabeth Frost Gowen
received in 1704 a donation of “1s. 9d” from pub-
lic funds. She was mentioned as living in the
home of her son, Nicholas Gowen when he wrote his
will in 1733. She died shortly afterward at about
age 92.

In 15 generations, thousands of descendants of Wil-
liam Gowen and Elizabeth Frost Gowen have been re-
corded since their marriage 343 years ago. Family
historians spanning several generations have col-
laborated to research their fascinating story.

Angevine W. Gowen, a civil engineer, surveyor and
historian, who contributed much data to “History of
York, Maine” written by Col. Charles Edward Banks,
was a descendant. He was born in 1869 at York and
became one of the family’s earliest genealogists.

According to John D. Bardwell, York historian, he
was “an orphan who was reared by Miss Julia M. Gowen,
his mother’s sister [sister-in-law?] and an uncle,
Joseph Gowen” who instilled in him their curiosity
about their ancestors.

Angevine W. Gowen was born on the home lot of his
maternal ancestor, Thomas Moulton in the house built
in 1714 on the York River by Joseph Moulton, son of
Jeremiah Moulton and grandson of Thomas Moulton, ac-
cording to Bardwell. Jeremiah Moulton purchased the
property from Sir Ferdinando Gorges in 1684 for £20.

The site was surveyed for Sir Ferdinando Gorges,
“the Lord Proprietor of the Province of Mayne” No-
vember 11, 1641. It was described as “a division
of 12,000 acres of land amongst the Patentee of Aga-
mentics, made by us Thomas Gorges, Esq, Edward God-
frey and Roger Garde who are acting on behalf of Mr.
Sayward’s Patentees.”

Angevine W. Gowen learned the surveying trade from
Samuel W. Junkins, beginning as a chain carrier for
him. In 1890, he went out on his own as a surveyor.
He also received recognition as a photographer, vio-
lin maker, musician, game warden, farmer, fisherman,
astronomer, taxidermist and woodsman, according to
Bardwell. Many of his photographs of the York area
made on glass negatives survive. The Gowen home
and 20 acres of land was later acquired by Old
York Historical Society.

A niece of Angevine W. Gowen, Mrs. Leslie Freeman
of York, continued the work, building on his re-
search. Helen P. Gowen continued research on the
family into the 1950s when blindness interrupted
her work at the age of 84. She passed the torch
to her younger cousin Viola Allen Gowen of Sanford,
Maine. Julie Tuttle, a relative of Angevine W.
Gowen, lived at Ida Grove, Iowa in 1991. Another
relative, Bradley Moulton, lived at Cape Neddick,
Maine at that time, according to Margaret Pearson
Tate of Exeter, New Hampshire, a later Gowen re-
searcher.

The most comprehensive work on this branch of the
family has been published by Yvonne Gowen of Sur-
rey, British Columbia, of Gowen Research Foundation.
Over 10 years were spent in gathering data on the
family. Mrs. Gowen, an accomplished genealogist,
assembled data from many sources. Among research-
ers who assisted were Margaret Pearson Tate of
Exeter, NH; Almeda Gowen Schofield of Contoocook,
NH; Barbara Clements of North Hampton, NH; Mary
Driscoll of Springvale, ME and Mary Ellen Gowen
Waugh of Riverdale, MD, also Foundation members.

Children born to William Gowen and Elizabeth Frost
Gowen include:

Nicholas Gowen born in 1667
John Gowen born in 1668
William Gowen born about 1672
Elizabeth Gowen born about 1673
James Gowen born about 1675
Margaret Gowen born about 1677
Lemuel Gowen born about 1680
Sarah Gowen born about 1682